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Fig. 3


Emerging white light intensity (top panels), vertical (vz) and horizontal () velocities (bottom panels) in a typical 3D snapshot of the red giant model, all at log τRoss = 0. Yellow (bright) and brown (dark) pixels in the top-right and bottom panels highlight the areas where the relative intensity deviation is larger than ΔI/ ⟨ I ⟩  = 0.3 in the up-flows and down-flows, respectively. Locations where the vertical velocity vz <  −1 Mach (supersonic down-flows) are marked with white contours, those where the vertical and horizontal velocities exceed 1 Mach are contoured in black (contours start at Mach =  ±1.0 and continue at  ±0.5 Mach thereof). The relative white light intensity contrast is 18.2% for this particular snapshot.

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