Temperature stratification in the 3D hydrodynamical model of a red giant, as a function of gas pressure, Pgas. The thick solid line is the profile of the ⟨3D⟩ model, the thin lines are 1D LHD models calculated using different mixing-length parameter (αMLT = 1.0,1.5,2.0, from left to right; in all cases Pturb = 0). The two 1D models with non-zero turbulent pressure are shown by dashed (αMLT = 2.0 and f = 1.0) and dashed-dotted (αMLT = 2.0 and f = 2.0) lines.
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