A sketch of the star-planet system with indication of Va, the volume interior to the star, and Vm, the volume occupied by the planetary magnetosphere assumed to be spherical. Two flux tubes are plotted and in the upper one Vf the cross sections F1 and F2 where the tube intersects the stellar surface and the magnetosphere are labelled, respectively. The blue arrows indicate the relative orbital velocity v and its normal component vn at the intersections of the two flux tubes with the magnetosphere. The dashed line inside Vm separates the region I where vn < 0, i.e., is oppositely directed with respect to the outward normal to the base of the flux tube, from the region II where vn > 0.
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