Contour plots showing the confidence with which we can exclude a model with specific parameters for the mass distribution power law (α, from −1.5 to 1.5, top to bottom), the semimajor axis distribution power law index (β, from −2.5 to 0.2) and the semimajor axis distribution power law cutoff (acutoff, from 10 to 320 AU). The hatched grey area corresponds to the values of acutoff within the separation of the known planet HR 8799 b (dashed line). Given the existence of the planet at a separation of ~68 AU, values of acutoff below that separation are de facto excluded. The best fit values of Cumming et al. (2008) for solar-type stars in terms of mass and semimajor axis are α = −1.31 and β = −0.61. Bowler et al. (2010a) report a 50% confidence for values of β higher than zero.
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