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Fig. 8

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Specific radial torque density in units of (dΓ/dm)0 for embedded planet models for 2D models using ϵ-potential (red curve) and a numerically integrated force (see Eq. (25)) that takes into account a Gaussian vertical density distribution (blue curve). The green curve refers to a full 3D model using the same physical model parameter as the 2D models. The 3D result is adapted from Kley et al. (2009) where the setup and numerics is described in more detail.

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