Temporal evolutions of relative energy (upper panels) and angular momentum (lower panels) drifts of particles under a time-varying (Gaussian) perturbation given by Eq. (29). Particles in this simulation have the same energy (E/Ebind = −0.7) and the same orbit inclination (60deg) from the x–y plane, but three different angular momenta (J/Jc = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75). The particles are set to initially have 36 equally spaced phases in the given orbit and 36 equally spaced right ascension of the apocenter from the line of ascending node (i.e., a total of 1296 particles for each of the three angular momenta).
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