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Fig. 1


Upper panel: sunspot numbers from 16 individual stations in the Ri-Network (thin lines) and from the Locarno station (thick black line) compared with the F10.7 flux (thick dashed line) transformed according to the R2 monthly relation (Johnson 2011) (F10.7 = 67 sfu). The station codes are listed in the legend. Lower panel: comparison between the Ri index (thick black) and 9 other independent sunspot networks (moving averages over one year). Abbreviations from the legend can be found on the SONNE website (

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