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Fig. 9


Torque acting on a planet located at 5 AU for different disc masses. Top: specific total torque acting on planets (20 MEarth) embedded in discs with different disc masses. The planets embedded in the higher mass discs MDisc > 0.02 M are in the convective zone in the disc, so that the torque acting on the planet is very noisy and has been averaged over 20 planetary orbits. Additionally, we over-plotted results (blue and purple) from the theoretical torque formulae of Paardekooper et al. (2010, 2011) for 20 MEarth planets. Bottom: radial torque density Γ(r) acting on the planet for different disc masses. For comparison, the vertical line indicates the location of the maximum as found for our standard case.

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