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Fig. 10

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Cross-over time (top) and cross-over mass (bottom) as function of the minimum radius of the size distribution of planetesimals for the simultaneous formation. Here the disk surface density is characterized by Σ ∝ a-1. For all cases the cross-over times and cross-over masses of Jupiter and Saturn agree well with the observational and theoretical estimates. The cross-over masses of Neptune and Uranus are higher than their current total masses. However, for both planets the mass of the core at the time they reach their current masses (open triangles and diamonds) agree with theoretical estimates.

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