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Fig. 1

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Bottom: theoretical transmission spectrum of the Earth’s atmosphere, calculated for the Observatorio de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain. The four atmospheric windows (Y, J, H, K band) are indicated. These four transmission bands are not entirely telluric-free: while the Y band shows little contamination, the J, H, and K bands show significant telluric contamination. Middle: theoretical spectrum of a hot L-dwarf in the wavelength region between 0.9 and 2.4 μm, which was generated with the Drift-PHOENIX code for the following parameters: Teff = 1800 K, log    g = 4.5 cm s-2, and solar metalicity. The positions of the four atmospheric windows (Y, J, H, K band) are indicated. Top: theoretical spectrum of a very cool M-dwarf in the wavelength region between 0.9 and 2.4 μm, which was generated with the Drift-PHOENIX code for the following parameters: Teff = 2200 K, log    g = 4.5 cm s-2, and solar metalicity. The positions of the four atmospheric windows (Y, J, H, K band) are indicated. While the model spectrum in the Y band shows a forest of deep absorption lines, the spectrum in the J is characterized by shallow features, apart from the strong potassium doublet around 1.25 μm. Close to the blue and red edge of the H band, deep absorption lines are observed, while the center of this band shows shallow absorption lines. In the K band, the most promising wavelength region is redwards of 2.29 μm, where a forest of deep CO-absorption lines is present.

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