Orbital elements for model 4 (left panels) and model 5 (right panels). Only planetesimals with semi-major axes a ≤ 13 AU are included. In model 4 the Kozai effect is still operating, while in model 5 it is not. Panels 1 and 2 show the eccentricity. Panels 3 and 4 display the inclination, where the short dashed lines represent the inner and outer edge of the disc and the long dashed line indicates the threshold inclination of 0.68(39.2°) above which the Kozai mechanism can operate.
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