Top: histogram of all the β measured, binned by 20°. Bottom: cumulative probability function for models by Fabrycky & Tremaine (2007) (blued dashed) and Nagasawa et al. (2008) (red dotted) converted from ψ to β, compared with current observations of β (plain black). The vertical black dotted line shows β = 30°. Above that, planets are considered misaligned.
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