Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia
Universidad Católica de Chile, Av.
Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile
e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
2 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Santiago, Chile
3 The Milky Way Millennium Nucleus, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago, Chile
4 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, BP4229, 06304 Nice, France
5 INAF − Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
6 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UMR 8111, Université Paris Diderot, 92125 Meudon, France
7 Institut Utinam, CNRS UMR 6213, OSU THETA, Université de Franche-Comté, 41bis avenue de l’Observatoire, 25000 Besançon, France
8 Jeremiah Horrocks Insitute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE, UK
9 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
10 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Calle Vía Láctea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
11 Departmento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
12 Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avenida Gran Bretana 1111 Valparaiso, Chile
13 Vatican Observatory, V, 00120 Vatican City State, Italy
Accepted: 23 April 2013
Context. It has recently been discovered that the Galactic bulge is X-shaped, with the two southern arms of the X both crossing the lines of sight at l = 0 and | b| > 4, hence producing a double red clump in the bulge color magnitude diagram. Dynamical models predict the formation of X-shaped bulges as extreme cases of boxy-peanut bulges. However, since X-shaped bulges were known to be present only in external galaxies, models have never been compared to 3D kinematical data for individual stars.
Aims. We study the orbital motion of Galactic bulge stars in the two arms (overdensities) of the X in the southern hemisphere. The goal is to provide observational constraints to bulge formation models that predict the formation of X-shapes through bar dynamical instabilities.
Methods. Radial velocities have been obtained for a sample of 454 bulge giants, roughly equally distributed between the bright and the faint red clump, in a field at (l,b) = (0, −6). Proper motions were derived for all red clump stars in the same field by combining images from two epochs, which were obtained 11 years apart, with WFI at the 2.2 m at La Silla. The observed field contains the globular cluster NGC 6558, whose member stars were used to assess the accuracy of the proper motion measurement. At the same time, as a by-product, we provide the first proper motion measurement of NGC 6558. The proper motions for the spectroscopic subsample are analyzed for a subsample of 352 stars, taking into account the radial velocities and metallicities measured from near-infrared calcium triplet lines.
Results. The radial velocity distribution of stars in the bright red clump, which traces the closer overdensity of bulge stars, shows an excess of stars moving towards the Sun. Similarly, an excess of stars receding from the Sun is seen in the far overdensity, which is traced by faint red clump stars. This is explained by the presence of stars on elongated orbits, which are most likely streaming along the arms of the X-shaped bulge. Proper motions for these stars are consistent with qualitative predictions of dynamical models of peanut-shaped bulges. Surprisingly, stars on elongated orbits have preferentially metal-poor (subsolar) metallicities, while the metal rich ones, in both overdensities, are preferentially found in more axisymmetric orbits. The observed proper motion of NGC 6558 has been measured as (μlcos (b),μb) = (0.30 ± 0.14, −0.43 ± 0.13), with a velocity dispersion of (σlcos(b),σb) = (1.8,1.7) mas/yr. This is the first proper motion measurement for this cluster.
Key words: Galaxy: bulge / Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics / Galaxy: structure / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
Based on observations taken with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 163.O-0741(A), 085.D-0143(A) and 385.B-0735(B) and on observations taken with the Magellan telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory.
Kinematics for IMACS and FLAMES spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A91
© ESO, 2013