EDP Sciences
Free access
Volume 470, Number 1, July IV 2007
Page(s) 105 - 118
Section Extragalactic astronomy
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20077232

A&A 470, 105-118 (2007)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20077232

Swift observations of GRB 060614: an anomalous burst with a well behaved afterglow

V. Mangano1, S. T. Holland2, 3, D. Malesani4, E. Troja1, 5, 6, G. Chincarini7, 8, B. Zhang9, V. La Parola1, 7, P. J. Brown10, D. N. Burrows10, S. Campana8, M. Capalbi11, G. Cusumano1, M. Della Valle12, N. Gehrels2, P. Giommi11, D. Grupe10, C. Guidorzi7, 8, T. Mineo1, A. Moretti8, J. P. Osborne5, S. B. Pandey13, M. Perri11, P. Romano7, 8, P. W. A. Roming10, and G. Tagliaferri8

1  INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Sezione di Palermo, via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy
    e-mail: vanessa@ifc.inaf.it
2  NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
3  Universities Space Research Association, 10227 Wincopin Circle, Suite 221, Columbia, MD 21044 USA
4  Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institut, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, 2100 København, Denmark
5  Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
6  Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Palermo, piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
7  Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, piazza delle Scienze 3, 20126 Milano, Italy
8  INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Emilio Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (LC), Italy
9  Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA
10  Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
11  ASI Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, 00044 Frascati (Roma), Italy
12  INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
13  Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College of London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT, UK

(Received 2 February 2007 / Accepted 13 April 2007)

GRB 060614 is a remarkable gamma-ray burst (GRB) observed by Swift with puzzling properties, which challenge current progenitor models. In particular, the lack of any bright supernova (SN) down to very strict limits and the vanishing spectral lags during the whole burst are typical of short GRBs, strikingly at odds with the long (102 s) duration of this event. Here we present detailed spectral and temporal analysis of the Swift observations of GRB 060614. We show that the burst presents standard optical, ultraviolet and X-ray afterglows, detected beginning 4 ks after the trigger. An achromatic break is observed simultaneously in the optical and X-ray bands, at a time consistent with the break in the R-band light curve measured by the VLT. The achromatic behaviour and the consistent post-break decay slopes make GRB 060614 one of the best examples of a jet break for a Swift burst. The optical and ultraviolet afterglow light curves have also an earlier break at 29.7 $\pm$ 4.4 ks, marginally consistent with a corresponding break at 36.6 $\pm$ 2.4 ks observed in the X-rays. In the optical, there is strong spectral evolution around this break, suggesting the passage of a break frequency through the optical/ultraviolet band. The very blue spectrum at early times suggests this may be the injection frequency, as also supported by the trend in the light curves: rising at low frequencies, and decaying at higher energies. The early X-ray light curve (from 97 to 480 s) is well interpreted as the X-ray counterpart of the burst extended emission. Spectral analysis of the BAT and XRT data in the ~80 s overlap time interval show that the peak energy of the burst has decreased to as low as 8 keV at the beginning of the XRT observation. Spectral analysis of following XRT data shows that the peak energy of the burst continues to decrease through the XRT energy band and exits it at about 500 s after the trigger. The average peak energy $E_{\rm p}$ of the burst is likely below the BAT energy band (<24 keV at the 90% confidence level) but larger than 8 keV. The initial group of peaks observed by BAT (~5 s) is however distinctly harder than the rest of the prompt emission, with a peak energy of about 300 keV as measured by Konus Wind. Considering the time-averaged spectral properties, GRB 060614 is consistent with the $E_{\rm iso}-E_{\rm p}^{\rm
rest}$, $E_{\gamma}-E_{\rm p}^{\rm rest}$, and $L_{\rm p,iso}-E_{\rm p}^{\rm
rest}$ correlations.

Key words: gamma rays: bursts -- X-rays: individuals: GRB 060614

© ESO 2007