EDP Sciences
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Volume 442, Number 1, October IV 2005
Page(s) 281 - 308
Section Stellar atmospheres
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20053028

A&A 442, 281-308 (2005)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20053028

Broad-band photometric colors and effective temperature calibrations for late-type giants

I. Z = 0.02
A. Kucinskas1, 2, 3, P. H. Hauschildt4, H.-G. Ludwig1, I. Brott4, 5, V. Vansevicius6, L. Lindegren1, T. Tanabé7 and F. Allard8

1  Lund Observatory, Lund University, Box 43, 221 00, Lund, Sweden
2  National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan
    e-mail: arunas.kucinskas@nao.ac.jp
3  Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Gostauto 12, Vilnius 01108, Lithuania
    e-mail: ak@itpa.lt
4  Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
5  INTEGRAL Science Data Centre, Chemin d'Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
6  Institute of Physics, Savanoriu 231, Vilnius 02300, Lithuania
7  Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-0015, Japan
8  Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure, Lyon, Cedex 07, 69364, France

(Received 9 March 2005 / Accepted 23 June 2005)

We present new synthetic broad-band photometric colors for late-type giants based on synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. The grid covers effective temperatures $T_{\rm eff}=3000\dots 5000$ K, gravities $\log
g=-0.5\dots{+3.5}$, and metallicities ${\rm
[M/H]}=+0.5\dots{-4.0}$. We show that individual broad-band photometric colors are strongly affected by model parameters such as molecular opacities, gravity, microturbulent velocity, and stellar mass. Our exploratory 3D modeling of a prototypical late-type giant shows that convection has a noticeable effect on the photometric colors too, as it alters significantly both the vertical and horizontal thermal structures in the outer atmosphere. The differences between colors calculated with full 3D hydrodynamical and 1D model atmospheres are significant (e.g., $\Delta(V-K)\sim0.2$ mag), translating into offsets in effective temperature of up to ~70 K. For a sample of 74 late-type giants in the Solar neighborhood, with interferometric effective temperatures and broad-band photometry available in the literature, we compare observed colors with a new PHOENIX grid of synthetic photometric colors, as well as with photometric colors calculated with the MARCS and ATLAS model atmosphere codes. We find good agreement of the new synthetic colors with observations and published $T_{\rm eff}$-color and color-color relations, especially in the $T_{\rm eff}$-(V-K), $T_{\rm eff}$-(J-K) and (J-K)-(V-K) planes. Deviations from the observed trends in the $T_{\rm eff}$-color planes are generally within $\pm$100 K for $T_{\rm eff}=3500$ to 4800 K. Synthetic colors calculated with different stellar atmosphere models agree to $\pm$100 K, within a large range of effective temperatures and gravities. The comparison of the observed and synthetic spectra of late-type giants shows that discrepancies result from the differences both in the strengths of various spectral lines/bands (especially those of molecular bands, such as TiO, H2O, CO) and the continuum level. Finally, we derive several new $T_{\rm eff}$-$\log g$-color relations for late-type giants at solar-metallicity (valid for $T_{\rm eff}=3500$ to 4800 K), based both on the observed effective temperatures and colors of the nearby giants, and synthetic colors produced with PHOENIX, MARCS and ATLAS model atmospheres.

Key words: stars: atmospheres -- stars: late-type -- stars: fundamental parameters -- techniques: photometric -- hydrodynamics

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