EDP Sciences
Free access
Issue
A&A
Volume 430, Number 3, February II 2005
Page(s) 811 - 825
Section Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20041375


A&A 430, 811-825 (2005)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20041375

The spatial clustering of X-ray selected AGN and galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South and North

R. Gilli1, E. Daddi2, G. Zamorani3, P. Tozzi4, S. Borgani5, J. Bergeron6, R. Giacconi7, 8, G. Hasinger9, V. Mainieri9, C. Norman7, 10, P. Rosati2, G. Szokoly9 and W. Zheng10

1  Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
    e-mail: gilli@arcetri.astro.it
2  European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, Garching, 85748, Germany
3  Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
4  Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) - Osservatorio Astronomico, via G. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
5  INFN, c/o Dip. di Astronomia dell'Università, via G. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
6  Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
7  The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
8  Associated Universities, Inc., 1400 16th Street NW, Suite 730, Washington, DC 20036, USA
9  Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching, Germany
10  Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA

(Received 31 May 2004 / Accepted 22 September 2004 )

Abstract
We investigate the spatial clustering of X-ray selected sources in the two deepest X-ray fields to date, namely the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN) and the 1 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). The projected correlation function  $w(r_{\rm p})$, measured on scales ${\sim} 0.2{-}10 \:h^{-1}$ Mpc for a sample of 240 sources with spectroscopic redshift in the CDFN and 124 sources in the CDFS at a median redshift of $\bar z\sim0.8$ is used to constrain the amplitude and slope of the real space correlation function $\xi(r)=(r/r_0)^{-\gamma}$. The clustering signal is detected at high confidence ( $\ga 7 \sigma$) in both fields. The amplitude of the correlation is found to be significantly different in the two fields, the correlation length r0 being $8.6 \pm 1.2\:h^{-1}$ Mpc in the CDFS and $4.2\pm 0.4\:h^{-1}$ Mpc in the CDFN, while the correlation slope $\gamma$ is found to be flat in both fields: $\gamma=1.33\pm
0.11 $ in the CDFS and $\gamma=1.42\pm 0.07 $ in the CDFN (a flat Universe with $\Omega_{\rm m}=0.3$ and $\Omega_{\Lambda}=0.7$ is assumed; $1\sigma$ Poisson error estimates are considered). The correlation function also has been measured separately for sources classified as AGN or galaxies. In both fields AGN have a median redshift of $\bar z\sim0.9$ and a median 0.5-10 keV luminosity of $\bar L_{\rm x}\sim 10^{43}$ erg s -1, i.e. they are generally in the Seyfert luminosity regime.

As in the case of the total samples, we found a significant difference in the AGN clustering amplitude between the two fields, the best fit correlation parameters being $r_0=10.3\pm 1.7 \:h^{-1}$ Mpc, $\gamma=1.33 \pm 0.14 $ in the CDFS, and $r_0=5.5\pm 0.6 \:h^{-1}$ Mpc, $\gamma=1.50 \pm 0.12 $ in the CDFN. In the CDFN, where the statistics are sufficiently high, we were also able to measure the clustering of X-ray selected galaxies, finding $r_0=4.0\pm
0.7 \:h^{-1}$  Mpc and $\gamma=1.36 \pm 0.15 $.

Within each field no statistically significant difference is found between soft and hard X-ray selected sources or between type 1 and type 2 AGN. After having discussed and ruled out the possibility that the observed variance in the clustering amplitude is due to observational biases, we verified that the extra correlation signal in the CDFS is primarily due to the two prominent redshift spikes at $z\sim 0.7$ reported by Gilli et al. (2003).

The high ( $5{-}10\:h^{-1}$ Mpc) correlation length measured for the X-ray selected AGN at $z\sim 1$ in the two Chandra Ms fields is comparable to that of early type galaxies at the same redshift. This is consistent with the idea that, at $z\sim 1$, AGN with Seyfert-like luminosities might be generally hosted by massive galaxies.


Key words: galaxies: general -- cosmology: large-scale structure of Universe -- galaxies: Seyfert -- X-rays: galaxies

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