EDP Sciences
Free access
Volume 393, Number 2, October II 2002
Page(s) 425 - 438
Section Extragalactic astronomy
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20020991

A&A 393, 425-438 (2002)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020991

XMM-Newton observation of the Lockman Hole

II. Spectral analysis
V. Mainieri1, 2, J. Bergeron3, G. Hasinger4, 5, I. Lehmann4, P. Rosati2, M. Schmidt6, G. Szokoly4, 5 and R. Della Ceca7

1  Dip. di Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma, Italy
2  European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
3  Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
4  Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse PF 1312, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen, Germany
5  Astrophysikalisches Institut, An der Sternwarte 16, Potsdam 14482, Germany
6  California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
7  Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, 20121 Milano, Italy

(Received 8 May 2002 / Accepted 2 July 2002 )

We present the results of the X-ray spectral analysis of the first deep X-ray survey with the XMM-Newton observatory during Performance Verification. The X-ray data of the Lockman Hole field and the derived cumulative source counts were reported by Hasinger et al. (2001). We restrict the analysis to the sample of 98 sources with more than 70 net counts (flux limit in the [0.5-7] keV band of $1.6 \times 10^{-15}$ erg cm -2 s -1) of which 61 have redshift identification. We find no correlation between the spectral index $\Gamma$ and the intrinsic absorption column density $N_{\rm H}$ and, for both the Type-1 and Type-2 AGN populations, we obtain $\langle\Gamma\rangle \simeq 2$. The progressive hardening of the mean X-ray source spectrum with decreasing flux is essentially due to an increase in intrinsic absorption. The marked separation between the two AGN populations in several diagnostics diagrams, involving X-ray colour, X-ray flux, optical/near IR colour and optical brightness, is also a consequence of different absorption column densities and enables the classification of optically faint obscured AGN. The Type-2 and obscured AGN have weaker soft X-ray and optical fluxes and redder $R-K^\prime$ colours. They follow the evolutionary tracks of their host galaxies in a color-redshift diagram. About 27% of the subsample with $R-K^\prime$ colour are EROs ( $R-K^\prime
\geq 5$ ) and most of these 18 X-ray selected EROs contain an obscured AGN as revealed by their high X-ray-to-optical/near IR flux ratios. There are six sources in our sample with $L_{\rm X}[0.5{-}10]>10^{44}$ erg s -1 and $\log(N_{\rm H})>10^{22}$ cm -2: which are likely Type-2 QSOs and we thus derive a density of $\sim $69 objects of this class per square degree.

Key words: surveys -- galaxies: active -- galaxies: quasars: general -- cosmology: diffuse radiation -- X-ray: galaxies -- X-rays: general

Offprint request: V. Mainieri, vmainier@eso.org

SIMBAD Objects

© ESO 2002

What is OpenURL?

The OpenURL standard is a protocol for transmission of metadata describing the resource that you wish to access.

An OpenURL link contains article metadata and directs it to the OpenURL server of your choice. The OpenURL server can provide access to the resource and also offer complementary services (specific search engine, export of references...). The OpenURL link can be generated by different means.

  • If your librarian has set up your subscription with an OpenURL resolver, OpenURL links appear automatically on the abstract pages.
  • You can define your own OpenURL resolver with your EDPS Account.
    In this case your choice will be given priority over that of your library.
  • You can use an add-on for your browser (Firefox or I.E.) to display OpenURL links on a page (see http://www.openly.com/openurlref/). You should disable this module if you wish to use the OpenURL server that you or your library have defined.