EDP Sciences
Free Access
Volume 467, Number 1, May III 2007
Page(s) 335 - 346
Section The Sun
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20066725

A&A 467, 335-346 (2007)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20066725

Reconstruction of solar total irradiance since 1700 from the surface magnetic flux

N. A. Krivova, L. Balmaceda, and S. K. Solanki

Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany
    e-mail: natalie@mps.mpg.de

(Received 9 November 2006 / Accepted 23 February 2007)

Context.Total solar irradiance changes by about 0.1% between solar activity maximum and minimum. Accurate measurements of this quantity are only available since 1978 and do not provide information on longer-term secular trends.
Aims.In order to reliably evaluate the Sun's role in recent global climate change, longer time series are, however, needed. They can only be assessed with the help of suitable models.
Methods.The total solar irradiance is reconstructed from the end of the Maunder minimum to the present based on variations of the surface distribution of the solar magnetic field. The latter is calculated from the historical record of the sunspot number using a simple but consistent physical model.
Results.Our model successfully reproduces three independent data sets: total solar irradiance measurements available since 1978, total photospheric magnetic flux since 1974 and the open magnetic flux since 1868 empirically reconstructed using the geomagnetic aa-index. The model predicts an increase in the solar total irradiance since the Maunder minimum of $1.3^{\rm +0.2}_{\rm -0.4}$ Wm-2.

Key words: Sun: activity -- Sun: faculae, plages -- Sun: magnetic fields -- solar-terrestrial relations -- sunspots

© ESO 2007