EDP Sciences
Free Access
Volume 433, Number 3, April III 2005
Page(s) 777 - 785
Section Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20041415

A&A 433, 777-785 (2005)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20041415

Further evidence for a merger in Abell 2218 from an XMM-Newton observation

G. W. Pratt, H. Böhringer and A. Finoguenov

MPE Garching, Giessenbachstraße, 85748 Garching, Germany
    e-mail: gwp@mpe.mpg.de

(Received 4 June 2004 / Accepted 17 December 2004)

The galaxy cluster Abell 2218, at z=0.171, is well-known for the discrepancy between mass estimates derived from X-ray and strong lensing analyses. With the present XMM-Newton observation, we are able to trace the gas density and temperature profiles out to a radius of ${\sim} 1400~h_{70}^{-1}$ kpc (approximately the virial radius of the cluster). The overall surface brightness profile is well fitted over three orders of magnitude with a simple $\beta$-model with a core radius of $0\farcm95$ and $\beta = 0.63$. The projected temperature profile declines steeply with radius (by ${\sim}
50\%$), and is well described by a polytrope with parameters t0 = 8.09 keV and $\gamma=1.15$. The temperature map shows a pronounced peak in the central arcminute, where the temperature rises by a factor of two (from ${\sim} 5$ to ${\sim} 10$ keV). The mass profile, calculated assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry, is best fitted with a King approximation to an isothermal sphere, implying a dark matter distribution with a central core, in contrast with the cusped cores found in more obviously relaxed clusters. The X-ray mass is approximately two times less than the strong lensing mass at $r \sim 80~h_{50}^{-1}$ kpc, although the agreement between X-ray and weak lensing mass measurements at larger radius ( $r \sim 400~h_{50}^{-1}$ kpc) is slightly better. While the X-ray total mass estimates can vary by 30 per cent depending on the mass model, all measurements are significantly lower than the corresponding total mass from optical measurements. Given the X-ray results indicating considerable disturbance of the intracluster gas, leading to a probable violation of the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, and the observed substructure in the optical, suggesting a line-of-sight merger, it is unlikely that the different mass estimates of this cluster can be reconciled, at least with standard modelling assumptions.

Key words: galaxies: clusters: individual: A2218 -- galaxies: intergalactic medium -- cosmology: observations -- cosmology: dark matter -- X-rays: galaxies: clusters

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