EDP Sciences
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Volume 431, Number 2, February IV 2005
Page(s) 433 - 449
Section Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20041782

A&A 431, 433-449 (2005)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20041782

An ISOCAM survey through gravitationally lensing galaxy clusters

IV. Luminous infrared galaxies in Cl 0024+1654 and the dynamical status of clusters
D. Coia1, B. McBreen1, L. Metcalfe2, 3, A. Biviano4, B. Altieri2, S. Ott5, B. Fort6, J.-P. Kneib7, 8, Y. Mellier6, 9, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes10, B. O'Halloran1, 11 and C. Sanchez-Fernandez2

1  Department of Experimental Physics, University College, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    e-mail: dcoia@bermuda.ucd.ie
2  XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Agency, Villafranca del Castillo, PO Box 50727, 28080 Madrid, Spain
3  ISO Data Centre, European Space Agency, Villafranca del Castillo, PO Box 50727, 28080 Madrid, Spain
4  INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131, Trieste, Italy
5  Science Operations and Data Systems Division of ESA, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands
6  Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
7  Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
8  California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
9  Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
10  Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St-George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada
11  Dunsink Observatory, Castleknock, Dublin 15, Ireland

(Received 3 August 2004 / Accepted 26 October 2004 )

Observations of the core of the massive cluster Cl 0024+1654 , at a redshift $z \sim 0.39$, were obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory using ISOCAM at 6.7 $\mu$m (hereafter 7 $\mu$m) and 14.3 $\mu$m (hereafter 15 $\mu$m). Thirty five sources were detected at 15 $\mu$m and thirteen of them are spectroscopically identified with cluster galaxies. The remaining sources consist of four stars, one quasar, one foreground galaxy, three background galaxies and thirteen sources with unknown redshift. The sources with unknown redshift are all likely to be background sources that are gravitationally lensed by the cluster. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of twelve cluster galaxies were fit from a selection of 20 models using the program GRASIL. The ISOCAM sources have best-fit SEDs typical of spiral or starburst models observed 1 Gyr after the main starburst event. The star formation rates were obtained for cluster members. The median infrared luminosity of the twelve cluster galaxies is ~ $1.0\times10^{11}$  ${L}_\odot$, with 10 having infrared luminosity above $9\times10^{10}$  ${L}_\odot$, and so lying near or above the $1\times10^{11}$  ${L}_\odot$ threshold for identification as a luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG). The [ $\ion{O}{ii}$] star formation rates obtained for 3 cluster galaxies are one to two orders of magnitude lower than the infrared values, implying that most of the star formation is missed in the optical because it is enshrouded by dust in the starburst galaxy. The cluster galaxies in general are spatially more concentrated than those detected at 15 $\mu$m. However the velocity distributions of the two categories are comparable. The colour-magnitude diagramme is given for the galaxies within the ISOCAM map. Only 20% of the galaxies that are significantly bluer than the cluster main sequence were detected at 15 $\mu$m, to the limiting sensitivity recorded. The counterparts of about half of the 15 $\mu$m cluster sources are blue, luminous, star-forming systems and the type of galaxy that is usually associated with the Butcher-Oemler effect. HST images of these galaxies reveal a disturbed morphology with a tendency for an absence of nearby companions. Surprisingly the counterparts of the remaining 15 $\mu$m cluster galaxies lie on the main sequence of the colour-magnitude diagramme. However in HST images they all have nearby companions and appear to be involved in interactions and mergers. Dust obscuration may be a major cause of the 15 $\mu$m sources appearing on the cluster main sequence. The majority of the ISOCAM sources in the Butcher-Oemler region of the colour-magnitude diagram are best fit by spiral-type SEDs whereas post-starburst models are preferred on the main sequence, with the starburst event probably triggered by interaction with one or more galaxies.

Finally, the mid-infrared results on Cl 0024+1654 are compared with four other clusters observed with ISOCAM. Scaling the LIRG count in Cl 0024+1654 to the clusters Abell 370 , Abell 1689 , Abell 2218 and Abell 2390 with reference to their virial radii, masses, distances, and the sky area scanned in each case, we compared the number of LIRGs observed in each cluster. The number in Abell 370 is smaller than expected by about an order of magnitude, even though the two clusters are very similar in mass, redshift and optical richness. The number of LIRGs detected in each of Abell 1689, Abell 2218 and Abell 2390 is 0, whereas 3 were expected from the comparison with Cl 0024+1654. A comparison of the mid-infrared sources in Abell 1689 and Abell 2218 shows that the sources in Abell 1689 are more luminous and follow the same trend identified in the comparison between Cl 0024+1654 and Abell 370. These trends seem to be related to the dynamical status and history of the clusters.

Key words: galaxies: clusters: general -- galaxies: clusters: individual: Cl 0024+1654 -- infrared: galaxies

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© ESO 2005