EDP Sciences
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Volume 425, Number 1, October I 2004
Page(s) 33 - 49
Section Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20040385

A&A 425, 33-49 (2004)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20040385

An ISOCAM survey through gravitationally lensing galaxy clusters

II. The properties of infrared galaxies in the A2218 field
A. Biviano1, L. Metcalfe2, 3, B. McBreen4, B. Altieri2, D. Coia4, M. F. Kessler5, J.-P. Kneib6, K. Leech3, K. Okumura7, S. Ott5, R. Perez-Martinez2, 3, C. Sanchez-Fernandez2, 3 and B. Schulz8

1  INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131, Trieste, Italy
    e-mail: biviano@ts.astro.it
2  XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Agency, Villafranca del Castillo, PO Box 50727, 28080 Madrid, Spain
3  ISO Data Centre, European Space Agency, Villafranca del Castillo, PO Box 50727, 28080 Madrid, Spain
4  Physics Department, University College Dublin, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4, Ireland
5  Science Operations and Data Systems Division of ESA, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands
6  Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
7  DSM/DAPNIA Service d'Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Bât. 709, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
8  Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA

(Received 4 March 2004 / Accepted 13 June 2004 )

We have observed the cluster Abell 2218 ( z=0.175) with ISOCAM on board the Infrared Space Observatory using two filters, LW2 and LW3, with reference wavelengths of 6.7 and 14.3  $\mu$m, respectively. We detected 76 sources down to 54 and 121  $\mu$Jy (50% completeness levels) at 6.7 and 14.3  $\mu$m, respectively. All these sources have visible optical counterparts. We have gathered optical and near-infrared magnitudes for 60 of the 67 non-stellar optical counterparts to the ISOCAM sources, as well as redshifts for 43 of them. We have obtained acceptable and well constrained fits to the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 41 of these sources, using the "GRASIL" models of Silva et al. (1998), and have determined their total infrared luminosities ( $L_{\rm IR}$'s) and star formation rates (SFRs).

The SEDs of 20 (out of 27) ISOCAM cluster members are best fit by models with negligible ongoing star formation, and no major episode of star formation in the last ~ 1 Gyr. Their SEDs resemble those of 5-10 Gyr old early-type galaxies. A slightly higher, but still very mild, star-formation activity is found among the remaining cluster sources, which are mostly spirals. The median IR luminosity of the 27 ISOCAM cluster sources is  $L_{\rm IR}
= 6 \times 10^8 \, L_{\odot}.$  The ISOCAM-selected cluster galaxies have indistinguishable velocity and spatial distributions from those of the other cluster galaxies, and do not contribute significantly to the Butcher-Oemler effect. If A2218 is undergoing a merger, as suggested by some optical and X-ray analyses, then this merger does not seem to affect the mid-infrared properties of its galaxies.

The SEDs of most ISOCAM-selected field sources are best fit by models with moderate ongoing star formation, with a significant fraction of their stellar mass formed in the last ~ 1 Gyr. Their SEDs resemble those of massive star-forming spirals or starburst galaxies, observed close to the maximum of their star formation activity, but not necessarily during the short-lived starburst event. The median redshift of these field galaxies is   $z \simeq 0.6$. Their  $L_{\rm IR}$'s span almost two orders of magnitudes, from ~ $10^{10} \, L_{\odot}$ to ~ $10^{12} \,
L_{\odot}$ , with a median of  $1.2 \times 10^{11}$ (eight of the 14 field sources are LIRGs). The SFRs of these 14 ISOCAM-selected field sources range from 2 to 125  $M_{\odot} \, {\rm yr}^{-1}$, with a median value of 22  $M_{\odot} \, {\rm yr}^{-1}$.

We compare our findings with those obtained in other ISOCAM cluster and field surveys.

Key words: galaxies: clusters: general -- galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 2218 -- infrared: galaxies

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© ESO 2004

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