A&A 414, 905-918 (2004)

DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20031679

## Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus

##### V. On the origin of bulges

**L. K. Hunt**

^{1}, D. Pierini^{2}and C. Giovanardi^{3}^{1}Istituto di Radioastronomia-Firenze/CNR, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy

e-mail: hunt@arcetri.astro.it

^{2}Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany

e-mail: dpierini@mpe.mpg.de

^{3}INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy

e-mail: giova@arcetri.astro.it

(Received 7 July 2003 / Accepted 30 October 2003 )

** Abstract **

We investigate the scaling relations of bulge and disk
structural parameters for a sample of 108 disk galaxies.
Structural parameters of individual galaxies are obtained from
two-dimensional bulge/disk decomposition of their
*H*-band surface brightness
distributions.
Bulges are modelled with a generalized exponential (Sérsic) with variable
integer shape index
*n*.
We find that bulge effective scalelengths
and luminosity
increase with increasing
*n*, but disk properties are independent of bulge shape.
As Hubble type
*T* increases,
bulges become less luminous and their mean effective surface brightness
gets fainter;
disk
shows a similar, but much weaker, trend.
When bulge parameters (
,
,
) are
compared with disk ones (
,
,
),
*they are tightly correlated for
n=1 bulges
*.
The correlations gradually worsen with increasing

*n*such that

*n*=4 bulges appear

*virtually independent*of their disks. The Kormendy relation, vs. , is shown to depend on bulge shape

*n*; the two parameters are tightly correlated in

*n*=4 bulges (

*r*=0.8), and increasingly less so as

*n*decreases; disk and are well correlated (

*r*=0.7). Bulge-to-disk size ratios are independent of Hubble type, but smaller for exponential bulges; the mean for

*n*=1 bulges is 4 times smaller than that for

*n*=4, with a spread which is 9 times smaller. Strongly barred SB galaxies with exponential bulges are more luminous than their unbarred counterparts. Exponential bulges appear to be closely related to their underlying disks, while bulges with higher

*n*values are less so;

*n*=4 bulges and their disks apparently have no relation. We interpret our results as being most consistent with a secular evolutionary scenario, in which dissipative processes in the disk are responsible for building up the bulges in most spirals.

**Key words:**galaxies: evolution

**--**galaxies: formation

**--**galaxies: fundamental parameters

**--**galaxies: spiral

**--**galaxies: structure

**--**infrared: galaxies

Offprint request: L. K. Hunt, hunt@arcetri.astro.it

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*ESO 2004*