EDP Sciences
Free Access
Volume 409, Number 2, October II 2003
Page(s) 563 - 571
Section Formation, structure and evolution of stars
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20031082
Published online 17 November 2003

A&A 409, 563-571 (2003)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20031082

Variation of cosmic ray injection across supernova shocks

H. J. Völk1, E. G. Berezhko2 and L. T. Ksenofontov2, 3

1  Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg, Germany
    e-mail: Heinrich.Voelk@mpi-hd.mpg.de
2  Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Ave., 677891 Yakutsk, Russia
    e-mail: berezhko@ikfia.ysn.ru
3  Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582, Japan
    e-mail: ksenofon@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

(Received 11 April 2003 / Accepted 28 May 2003)

The injection rate of suprathermal protons into the diffusive shock acceleration process should vary strongly over the surface of supernova remnant shocks. These variations and the absolute value of the injection rate are investigated. In the simplest case, like for SN 1006, the shock can be approximated as spherical in a uniform large-scale magnetic field. The injection rate depends strongly on the shock obliquity and diminishes as the angle between the ambient field and the shock normal increases. Therefore efficient particle injection, which leads to conversion of a significant fraction of the kinetic energy at a shock surface element, arises only in relatively small regions near the "poles", reducing the overall CR production. The sizes of these regions depend strongly on the random background field and the Alfvén wave turbulence generated due to the CR streaming instability. For the cases of SN 1006 and Tycho's SNR they correspond to about 20, and for Cas A to between 10 and 20 percent of the entire shock surface. In a first approximation, the CR production rate, calculated under the assumption of spherical symmetry, has therefore to be renormalized by this factor, while the shock as such remains roughly spherical.

Key words: ISM: supernova remnants -- shock waves -- acceleration of particles -- ISM: cosmic rays -- ISM: magnetic fields

Offprint request: H. J. Völk, heinrich.voelk@mpi-hd.mpg.de

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