EDP Sciences
Free access
Volume 389, Number 2, July II 2002
Page(s) 641 - 664
Section The solar system
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20020431

A&A 389, 641-664 (2002)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020431

Colors of Minor Bodies in the Outer Solar System

A statistical analysis
O. R. Hainaut1 and A. C. Delsanti1, 2

1  European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile
2  Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France

(Received 12 October 2001 / Accepted 14 February 2002 )

We present a compilation of all available colors for 104 Minor Bodies in the Outer Solar System (MBOSSes); for each object, the original references are listed. The measurements were combined in a way that does not introduce rotational color artifacts. We then derive the slope, or reddening gradient, of the low resolution reflectance spectra obtained from the broad-band color for each object. A set of color-color diagrams, histograms and cumulative probability functions are presented as a reference for further studies, and are discussed. In the color-color diagrams, most of the objects are located very close to the "reddening line" (corresponding to linear reflectivity spectra). A small but systematic deviation is observed toward the I band indicating a flattening of the reflectivity at longer wavelengths, as expected from laboratory spectra. A deviation from linear spectra is noticed toward the B for the bluer objects; this is not matched by laboratory spectra of fresh ices, possibly suggesting that these objects could be covered with extremely evolved/irradiated ices. Five objects ( 55 , 66 , 3 , 66 and (2060) Chiron ) have almost perfectly solar colors; as two of these are known or suspected to harbour cometary activity, the others should be searched for activity or fresh ice signatures. In the color-color diagrams, 2 , 3 , 2 and 151 are located very far from the main group of objects; it is suspected that this corresponds to inaccurate measurements and not intrinsically strange objects. The color distributions were analyzed as functions of the orbital parameters of the objects and of their absolute magnitude. No significant correlation is observed, with the following exceptions: Cubewanos with low orbital excitation (low i, e and/or ${\cal E} =
\sqrt{e^2 + \sin^2 i}$ ), and therefore experiencing on average fewer and less violent collisions have significantly redder colors; Cubewanos with faint absolute magnitude M(1,1) tend to be redder than the others, while Plutinos present the opposite trend. The color distribution of the various MBOSS classes are analyzed and compared using generic statistic tools. The comets were found to be significantly bluer than the other MBOSSes. Finally, we compare the various 1D and 2D color distributions to simple models, in order to throw some light on the question of the bimodality of MBOSS color distributions. It is found that with the current data set, all color distributions are compatible with simple, continuous distribution models, while some color distributions are not compatible with simple bimodal distribution models. Table 1 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/389/641, and the tables and complete set of figures corresponding the up-to-date database are available on the web at http://www.sc.eso.org/~ohainaut/MBOSS.

Key words: comets: general -- Kuiper Belt -- solar system: general -- methods: statistical

Offprint request: O. R. Hainaut, ohainaut@eso.org

Tables at the CDS

© ESO 2002

What is OpenURL?

The OpenURL standard is a protocol for transmission of metadata describing the resource that you wish to access.

An OpenURL link contains article metadata and directs it to the OpenURL server of your choice. The OpenURL server can provide access to the resource and also offer complementary services (specific search engine, export of references...). The OpenURL link can be generated by different means.

  • If your librarian has set up your subscription with an OpenURL resolver, OpenURL links appear automatically on the abstract pages.
  • You can define your own OpenURL resolver with your EDPS Account.
    In this case your choice will be given priority over that of your library.
  • You can use an add-on for your browser (Firefox or I.E.) to display OpenURL links on a page (see http://www.openly.com/openurlref/). You should disable this module if you wish to use the OpenURL server that you or your library have defined.