A&A 492, 731-734 (2008)
K. Murakawa1 - S. Oya2 - T.-S. Pyo2 - M. Ishii2
1 - Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
2 - Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
Received 31 July 2008 / Accepted 15 October 2008
We present the -band high-resolution polarimetric images of the low-mass proto-stellar object HL Tau using the adaptive optics-equipped CIAO instrument on the Subaru telescope. Our polarization images show a butterfly-shaped polarization disk with an extension. In the nebula, where polarization vectors are centro-symmetrically aligned, the polarization is as high as , , and . On the other hand, low polarizations of P<3% in the J, H, and K bands and a low color excess ratio of EJ-H/EH-K=1.1compared to the standard cloud value of 1.75 are detected towards the central star. We estimated the upper limit of the grain sizes to be 0.4 m in the nebula and 0.7 m in the line of sight towards the central star. Our high-resolution polarimetric data, which spatially resolves the polarization disk, provides us with important information about grain growth in the region close to the central star.
Key words: polarization - ISM: dust, extinction
The disk is a key component of young stellar objects because the physical structure is characterized by the star-forming process, and it is a field where grain growth progresses. However, it is difficult to directly detect the images and investigate the physical properties because of small angular sizes; e.g. a 0 7 radius for a typical T Tauri disk radius of 100 AU at a distance of 140 pc. High-resolution techniques such as adaptive optics (AO), speckle interferometry, and infrared interferometry achieve sub-0 1 angular resolutions which can, in theory, resolve typical T Tauri disks if objects are in nearby star-forming regions. It is also known that NIR imaging polarimetry is a powerful technique to derive dust properties and geometry structures via dust scattered light. For example, bipolar nebulae seen nearly edge-on show a centro-symmetric polarization vector pattern in the lobes on a large scale and a polarization disk in the equatorial plane (Perrin et al. 2004; Kenyon et al. 1993; Whitney et al. 1997). These signatures are explained with a model consisting of a disk/torus and infalling envelope (Bastien & Ménard 1988; Fischer et al. 1996; Whitney & Hartmann 1993). Furthermore, our recent experiments have demonstrated that multiwavelength, high-resolution imaging polarimetry allows us to also derive multiple grain populations; e.g., large grains in the equatorial disk region and small grains in the surrounding nebula (Murakawa et al. 2008a,c,b). In this paper, we present -band high-resolution polarimetric images of the low mass protostar HL Tau and discuss the polarization properties and the grain sizes in the disk and envelope.
We reduced the observed data as described in our previous papers (Murakawa et al. 2004,2005). After subtraction of the dark frame and flat-fielding, we obtained images of the Stokes IQU parameters, the polarized intensity (PI), the degree of linear polarization (P), the polarization orientation (), as well as their error images. We found signal-to-noise ratios (SNs) of the Stokes I images of SNJ = 30-300, SNH = 30-300, and SNK = 20-200 per pixel and the errors of linear polarization of PJ<3%, PH<3%, and PK<5% per pixel within from the central star. The accuracy of the polarization orientation per pixel is in the lobes. The estimated PSF sizes are in the J band and in the H and K bands.
The second panels in Fig. 1 show the color index images of J-H(left), H-K (middle), and (J-H)/(H-K) (right). We see some spots with low J-H values (0.7) near the central star, which approximately trace the C-shaped feature, and a high value of 7.6 mag towards the central star in the J-H image. We also find a different color pattern between the east and west sides of the nebula, which is split by a long arc-like feature extending from the north to the east, crossing near the central star. The east side has a J-H of 4 mag, an H-K of 2 mag, and a (J-H)/(H-K)of 2-3.5. On the other hand, lower mag, higher mag, and lower (J-H)/(H-K) of 0-1 are detected on the western side. The H-K color index pattern can be explained by a stronger extinction in the southwest lobe than in the northeastern lobe because the northeastern side of the HL Tau system is tilted towards the observer (Mundy et al. 1996; Hayashi et al. 1993). In contrast, the J-H color index pattern does not agree with the simple extinction model above. One reason could be due to a complicated optical depth structure; i.e. the northeastern part is optically thin in the H and K bands, but it becomes optically thick in the J band. The color information towards the central star indicates the reddening by dust. If we assume the intrinsic color of the central star to be and , which is obtained from an estimated stellar temperature of 4000 K (e.g. Men'shchikov et al. 1999), the color excess values and their ratio are estimated to be EJ-H=7.3, EH-K=6.4, and EJ-H/EH-K=1.1. The color index ratio EJ-H/EH-K is significantly lower than an estimated average value of 1.75 for the Taurus dark cloud (Whittet et al. 2007), suggesting larger grain sizes close to the central star compared to the ones in the parent molecular cloud.
|Figure 1: J, H, and K band polarimetric data of HL Tau obtained using CIAO on the Subaru telescope. The field of view is . The top is north and left to the east. The top panels are the total intensity (Stokes I) images. The second row presents the J-H and H-K magnitude images and the (J-H)/(H-K) image. The third row and the bottom panels show the polarized intensity images and the degree of polarization images with polarization vector lines, respectively. The X-shaped feature seen in the H-K magnitude image is the diffraction pattern of the supporter of the telescope secondary mirror.|
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In the polarized intensity images (the third row), the northern arc, the C-shaped feature, and the southwestern lobe show high polarized intensity and the southwestern feature is split by the dark lane, which corresponds to the long arc detected in the J-H magnitude image. This dark lane is due to an optically thick disk and the long arc appears due to this disk, where scattering occurs several times, resulting in low polarization.
The bottom panels in Fig. 1 show the degree of polarization images. The polarization vector lines are centro-symmetrically aligned in the outer part of the nebulosity. The degree of polarization there reaches , , and . A polarization disk lies across the central star at a position angle of . This is consistent with previous results of imaging polarimetry (Weintraub et al. 1995; Lucas et al. 2004; Gledhill & Scarrott 1989). The polarization disk shows a butterfly shape with low polarizations of , , and PK=1.0% applying a 0 3 diameter aperture. These values are lower than the results of PH,K = 3-4% using the UKIRT and using the Subaru presented by Lucas et al. (2004). The higher polarizations in their results are probably due to larger PSF sizes (0 4 for both the UKIRT and Subaru data). Namely, scattered polarized fluxes around the central star contaminate the polarization measurement more at a larger PSF size. Therefore, our higher resolution data (0 1-0 2) would show more realistic polarization values. The extension of the polarization disk slightly depends on the wavelength. The angular size is a in the direction perpendicular to the disk plane and , , and parallel to the disk plane in the J, H, and K bands, respectively, if the region of the polarization lower than 5% is measured. The threshold polarization to determine the polarization disk is not defined. Instead, a polarization disk is regarded as the lower polarization region, which resulted in multiple scattering and the regime is roughly a region of an optical depth higher than 1.0. In many observational results, the extension of a polarization disk is larger than the estimated dust disk size. In fact, previous millimeter and centimeter radio interferometric images estimated a 100 AU radius or an even smaller size of 65 AU for HL Tau's (Keplerian accretion) disk (e.g. Greaves et al. 2008; Wilner et al. 1996; Mundy et al. 1996, and references therein), resulting in an expected extention (diameter) of 0 9 to 1 4 at a distance of 140 pc (Kenyon et al. 1994).
We first investigated the grains in the nebulosity by means of one-dimensional single scattering modeling (Murakawa et al. 2008c,b). We assumed the following model geometry parameters: an inner radius of 0.05 AU, a luminosity of 10 (e.g. Robitaille et al. 2007), an outer radius of 1300 AU (Hayashi et al. 1993), a radial dust density distribution of , and an optical depth of 1 at V band. For dust grains, we assumed the DL-chemistry (Draine & Lee 1984) and a power-law size distribution of with a size range of . Because the lower limit of the grain size is insensitive in our modeling, we determined only the maximum value . We examined values from 0.2 to 1.0 m with 0.1 m increments and calculated the degree of polarization. We compared these model results with our observations and found that m is a reasonable solution. Although the accuracy of the estimation from our polarization fit is actually quite good (about m for submicron sizes), one should consider that: (1) the real chemical composition of dust in HL Tau nebula could be somewhat different from the DL-chemistry. For instance, a water ice mantle is omitted in our modeling; (2) our single scattering modeling fits the polarization in a region where a centro-symmetric polarization vector pattern is seen. However, this sampling region does not have a large enough separation from the central star due to the data quality. Thus, the data could be diluted somewhat by multiple scattering components.
We estimated the grain size in the region close to the central star using the color excess ratio presented in Sect. 2.2. This value can be determined with the extinction cross section as . We calculated this for the above grain model with values of 0.2 to 10.0 m. Because the extinction efficient converges to 1 for size parameter , the EJ-H/EH-K also becomes a constant value, which is found to be 1.1 in our calculation and is consistent with our observational result. The corresponding grain size for this result is m. Lucas et al. (2004) applied a single grain model of spheroidal shape in the entire nebula and found sizes slightly larger than 1 m and a grain axis ratio of 1.015 based on their polarization data, which shows higher values than ours. If our high-angular-resolution data and multiple dust models are applied, more spherical shapes and/or larger sizes are expected.
The main interests of these studies are grain alignment mechanisms and magnetic field interaction with star formation. We propose adding another point of the grain size in data which has spatial information. The above infrared polarimetry has been obtained applying large apertures, which acquire almost entire flux from the source. Thus, the results are affected by the polarized flux from the nebula, where small grains (i.e. sub-micron-size) are expected to exist, and show similar polarization properties to the interstellar polarization, i.e. a strong wavelength dependence. We compare some results of HL Tau and other object of high-resolution data. In HL Tau, the is less than 3% at the central star using a 0 3 diameter aperture and does not follow Serkowski's law. Because of this result, the polarization efficiency is also as low as 0.23, 0.55, and 0.27 in the bands, respectively, applying the optical depth estimated by Lucas et al. (2004). These results are explained by the presence of large grains in the disk. Murakawa et al. (2008c) presented the -band imaging polarimetry of the Herbig Be star R Mon. Their results also show low polarizations of PJ=7%, PH=2%, and PK=1%. Radio observation has shown evidence of large grains from a millimeter flux excess (Fuente et al. 2006). Thus, interpreting infrared polarization of this object is similar to doing it for HL Tau. On the other hand, other objects such as AFGL 2519 (Minchin et al. 1991), AFGL 437 (Meakin et al. 2005), and CRL 2136 (Murakawa et al. 2008b), which are probably higher mass than R Mon, show very different results. Although, in these data, the polarization disk is spatially resolved and the central star feature is seen, the polarization is still high (%) and the polarization vectors towards the central star are systematically aligned. For CRL 2136, Murakawa et al. (2008b) estimated the grain size ( ) to be 0.45 m from their radiative transfer modeling. They also discussed the possible mechanisms of polarization vector alignment and concluded that the high polarization is probably produced by dichroic absorption by small non-spherical grains.
The aforementioned results suggest that many protostars of low- to intermediate-counterparts show low infrared polarization in the polarization disk and evidence of large grains, and the opposed results are seen in many massive stars. High-resolution near-infrared imaging polarimetry is a potential technique for investigating grain growth in the disk. Further studies of more samples and detailed modeling will provide us with new insights into the disk environment to determine grain growth and the magnetic field interaction in the disk and envelope.
Based on data collected at the Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.