R. U. Claudi 1 - A. Bonanno 2 - S. Leccia 3 - R. Ventura 2 - S. Desidera 1 - R. Gratton 1 - R. Cosentino 2 - L. Paternò 3 - M. Endl4
1 - INAF - Oss. Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
2 - INAF - Oss. Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
3 - Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
4 - McDonald Observatory, The university of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
Received 1 October 2004 / Accepted 17 November 2004
We present high precision radial velocity measurements on the F5 IV star CMi obtained by the SARG spectrograph at TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) exploiting the iodine cell technique. The time series of about 950 spectra of Procyon A taken during 6 observation nights are affected by an individual error of . Thanks to the iodine cell technique, the spectrograph contribution to the Doppler shift measurement error is quite negligible and our error is dominated by the photon statistics (Brown et al. 1994). An excess of power between 0.5 and 1.5 mHz, detected also by Martic et al. (2004) has been found. We determined a large separation frequency , consistent with both theoretical estimates (Chaboyer et al. 1999) and previous observations (Martic et al. 2004).
Key words: asteroseismology - solar-like oscillations - Procyon A - techniques: radial velocities
Procyon A ( CMi, HR 2943, HD61421) for its proximity and brightness has already attracted attention of stellar seismologists (Barban et al. 1999; Guenther & Demarque 1993; Chaboyer et al. 1999; Martic et al. 1999). It is a F5 IV star (with V=0.363) at a distance of 3.53 pc in a 40-year period visual binary system; the companion is a white dwarf more than 10 mag fainter than the primary. Adopting the very precisely measured parallax by Hipparcos, mas, Prieto et al. (2002) derived a mass of , a radius of and a gravity of .
These parameters cannot unambigously determine the evolutionary status of the star, which could be either in the core hydrogen-burning phase or in the more advanced hydrogen shell-burning phase. Although in principle seismology would help to establish the evolutionary status of Procyon A (Di Mauro 2004), the nature of its pulsational spectrum is a subject of intense debate.
In fact, the excess of power around 1 mHz found by Martic et al. (2004) seems to have a stellar origin and is consistent with a p-mode comb-like pattern with a large frequency separation of about 54 Hz. However, data from the recently launched Canadian MOST satellite () show no significant power excess in the same spectral region. While Matthews et al. (2004) suggested that the ground-based detection of p-modes may be an artefact caused by a combination of stellar noise, and data sampling and analysis, () suggest that the most likely explanation for the null detection seems to be a dominating non-stellar noise source in the MOST data.
The aim of this letter is to discuss the observations of Procyon A carried out using the high-resolution spectrograph SARG mounted at TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo), aimed at detecting stellar oscillations by means of high-precision radial velocity measurements. Our findings confirm the presence of an excess of power around the 1 mHz region, where we detect several frequencies whose distribution is consistent with a p-mode spectral pattern. In addition, our results show the high efficiency of the SARG spectrograph in detecting solar-like oscillations in stars, being an ideal instrument for multisite ground-based observing campaigns.
Our spectra were obtained at R=144 000 in the wavelength range between 462 and . The iodine cell covers only the blue part (see Fig. 1) of the spectrum (from 462 up to ) which has been used for measuring stellar Doppler shifts. The red part of the echelle spectrum of Procyon A has been used for measuring equivalent width of absorption lines sensitive to temperature. Here we present the results concerning the blue part of the spectrum while the analysis of the red one will be the topic of a future work. During the observations (the first SARG scientific run after commissioning and testing phases) we collected about 950 spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio and a mean exposure time of about . Due to weather and technical conditions (see Table 1 for more details) a few gaps are present in the time series.
|Figure 1: A segment of the echelle spectrum of Procyon obtained by SARG. Top panel: iodine absorption lines are superimposed to the Procyon lines. Bottom panel: the Procyon spectrum without iodine absorption features. This spectrum has been used as the template spectrum in the determination of radial velocity from star plus iodine spectra.|
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Table 1: Observing log: date, number of spectra, signal-to-noise ratio and seeing.
|Figure 2: Radial velocities of Procyon obtained on 2001/01/06. The data are affected by an internal error of and an rms of . The 21-min pulsation is also reported.|
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|Figure 3: The Scargle-Lomb periodogram of the data. An excess of power around 1 mHz is evident. The horizontal solid lines show the confidence levels corresponding to the probability of detecting a peak due to a genuine signal equal to 90% and 99%. The inset shows the power spectrum of the window function for a sine wave signal of amplitude 1 m s-1, sampled as the observations. The power unit are the same as the main figure.|
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We have used the modified Scargle-Lomb periodogram (Scargle 1982) in order to perform the spectral analysis. The result obtained by combining all the six observing nights is shown in Fig. 3, where an excess of power around 1 mHz is clearly visible. The time scale gives a spectral resolution of 1.62 Hz. The calibration of the Scargle's power in terms of amplitude squared was performed in such a way that a synthetic sine wave of 1 m s-1, sampled as the observations, would yield in the periodogram a cluster of peaks, the largest of which with a power equal to 1 m2 s-2. We then computed the statistical significance of the detected peaks in terms of the "false alarm probability'' F, as defined by Scargle (1982), and adopting the prescription of Horne & Baliunas (1986). F is the probability that a spike (i.e. power in one frequency bin) is due to noise. Consequently the quantity (1-F) is the probability of detecting a peak due to a genuine signal. The power levels (confidence levels) concorresponding to the value (1-F) equal to 90% and 99%, equivalent to a false alarm probability of 10% and 1%, respectively, are reported in Fig. 3. In Table 2 we listed all the individual frequencies detected with a confidence level greater than 90%; the frequencies consistent, with those found by Martic et al. (2004) are shown in bold-face. The additional frequencies of 302.0 Hz, 428.0 Hz and 808.8 Hz are also consistent with those of Martic et al. (2004), but have been detected with a confidence level smaller than 90%. By comparing the power spectrum shown in Fig. 3 with the results presented in Martic et al. (1999), it is worth noting that most of the strongest peaks in our periodogram have power of about 0.9 m2 s-2, a value greater than that found by Martic et al. (1999) in the analysis of the observations carried out on November 1997 using the ELODIE spectrograph, which ranges from 0.8 m2 s-2 in the periodograms obtained for two subsets of data to 0.5 m2 s-2 in the periodogram of the entire data set. On the other hand the high frequency mean white noise level in our periodogram, evaluated in the frequency range 1.8-3 mHz, is 0.049 m2 s-2, while the values reported by Martic et al. (1999) range from 0.014 to 0.030 m2 s-2, depending on the different set of data analyzed. The power of most of the strongest peaks reported by Martic et al. (2004) referring to the ELODIE and the combined ELODIE/AFOE data sequences colleced on January-Febraury 1999 is about 0.16-0.20 m2 s-2, while that reported for the AFOE data is about ; the mean noise levels are quite different in the three sets of data, ranging from 0.0256 to 0.0064 m2 s-2.
Table 2: Prominent peaks present in the periodogram of Procyon A detected by SARG with a confidence level larger than 90%: bold characters indicate the frequencies consistent, within our spectral resolution of 1.62 Hz, with those found by Martic et al. (2004) with a spectral resolution of 1.79 Hz.
|Figure 4: Comparison between modified comb responses for the two central frequencies and of the power spectrum of Procyon A data. The responses are scaled to the maximum peak obtained for the frequency at .|
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|Figure 5: The first-order spacings over several frequency ranges, as determined from comb analysis. The line shows the mean value of .|
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In order to estimate the large frequency separation
in the region of the
excess of power detected in the periodogram, we CLEAN-ed the spectrum by the window
function (for the details of the adopetd procedure see Roberts et al. 1987) and successively
we applied to the CLEAN-ed power spectrum the comb-response (CR) method (Kjeldsen et al. 1995)
which is a generalization of the power spectrum of a power spectrum
and consequently allows us to search for any regularity in a spectral pattern.
In the case of solar-like oscillations it allows us to detect their typical comb-like structure.
In particular, a peak in the CR at a particular spacing
the presence of a regular series of peaks in the power spectrum, centered at the
central frequency and having a spacing of
the modified comb-response function (Martic et al. 2004):
The determination of is not strongly sensitive to the choice of D0.
We wish to thank H. Kjeldsen and J. Christensen-Dalsgaard for useful comments and suggestions.The authors wish to thank the anonymous referee for useful comments and suggestions which contributed to improve the paper.
This work has partially been supported by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Scientific Research) under contract COFIN 2002, No. 2002024732.