A&A 428, 1-19 (2004)

DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20034208

**A. Beklemishev ^{1} - M. Tessarotto ^{2}**

1 - Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia

2 - Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy

Received 18 August 2003 / Accepted 20 July 2004

**Abstract**

A fundamental aspect of many plasma-related
astrophysical problems is the kinetic description of magnetized
relativistic plasmas in intense gravitational fields, such as in
accretion disks around compact gravitating bodies. The goal of
this paper is to formulate a gyrokinetic description for a
Vlasov-Maxwell plasma within the framework of general relativity.
A closed set of relativistic gyrokinetic equations, consisting of
the collisionless gyrokinetic equation and corresponding
expressions for the four-current density, is derived for an
arbitrary four-dimensional coordinate system. General relativity
effects are taken into account via the tetrad formalism. The
guiding-center dynamics of charged particles and the gyrokinetic
transformation are obtained accurate to the second order of the
ratio of the Larmor radius to the nonuniformity scale length. The
wave terms with arbitrary wavelength
are described in the second-order (nonlinear) approximation with
respect to the amplitude of the wave. The same approximations are
used in the derivation of the gyrophase-averaged Maxwell
equations. The derivation is based on the perturbative Lagrangian
approach with a fully relativistic, four-dimensional covariant
formulation. Its results improve on existing limitations of the
gyrokinetic theory.

**Key words: **plasmas - relativity - gravitation

The gyrokinetic theory is an adequate, yet simplified, description of collisionless magnetized plasmas. It strives to utilize the conservation of the magnetic moment to reduce the number of effective degrees of freedom of charged particles. In this respect it is similar to the drift-kinetic approximation. However, it goes further than the drift approximation, since it allows short-wavelength (comparable to the Larmor radius, ) perturbations of the background fields.

From the mathematical viewpoint, the dynamics of Hamiltonian systems can be expressed, in principle, in arbitrary hybrid (i.e., non-canonical) state variables. The search of phase-space transformations yielding "simpler'' equations of motion has long motivated theoretical research in physics and mathematical physics. Among such transformations, a particular case is provided by the gyrokinetic transformation, yielding hybrid variables defined in such a way that one of them, the so-called gyrophase angle, is ignorable. This transformation can only be introduced when particles move in a sufficiently strong magnetic field.

For a certain class of problems in plasma physics and astrophysics, the existing limitations of the standard gyrokinetic theory (Hahm et al. 1988; Brizard & Chan 1999; Cooper 1997; Littlejohn 1979,1984; Boozer 1996) make its use difficult or impossible. In particular, this involves the description of experiments in which the electric field may become comparable in strength to the magnetic field (so that the drift velocity becomes relativistic), and the study of relativistic plasma flows in gravitational fields, which are observed or assumed to exist in accretion disks and related plasma jets around neutron stars, black holes, and active galactic nuclei (Frank et al. 1992). The finite Larmor radius effects and the influence of short wavelength electromagnetic perturbations are also expected to play a fundamental role in particle dynamics. The present paper aims at extending the applicability range of gyrokinetic theory to include these features, and at providing an effective tool for use in plasma-physics-related problems in astrophysics.

The conventional non-relativistic gyrokinetic theory (Hahm et al. 1988; Littlejohn 1979) has
been generalized to include only some relativistic effects, which are
essential for the description of the confinement of fusion products in
thermonuclear reactors (Brizard & Chan 1999; Cooper 1997; Littlejohn 1984; Boozer 1996), namely, the particle itself is
considered relativistic, while its drift velocity is not. This deficiency
has been pointed out by Pozzo & Tessarotto (1998), who attempted to write the theory in the
reference frame moving with the fluid velocity, where all drifts should be
first order in the expansion parameter, and the question about relativistic
drifts should disappear. However, it proved to be more rewarding to create
the covariant theory (Beklemishev & Tessarotto 1999), as it makes use of the term
"relativistic'', i.e., with relation to *any* reference frame, in its
full sense. This approach is inherently more general and symmetric than the
non-relativistic treatment and its "relativistic'' generalizations. As a
result, even the non-relativistic limit of the theory is found to have a
broader applicability range than the standard derivation. In particular,
covariant formulation allows self-consistent inclusion of the gravitational
field, which makes the theory suitable for astrophysical applications.

In our previous paper (Beklemishev & Tessarotto 1999) the development of the covariant theory (derivation of the gyrokinetic transformation) was carried out through first order in the expansion parameter, and without the wave fields. It has been shown that the fundamental adiabatic invariant of a particle, i.e., its magnetic moment, as well as the ignorable gyrophase, can be defined as Lorentz invariant, independent of the reference frame. Also, the derivation itself becomes algebraically simple due to the internal symmetry of the electromagnetic field in the four-dimensional formulation. Covariant formulation allows the derived equations to be easily rendered for any coordinate system in four-dimensional Riemann space-time. It is important for astrophysics applications, as well as for problems where description in curvilinear magnetic coordinates is convenient. Although we do not use canonical variables, any coordinate system compatible with canonical variables can be imposed on the final result. Here it is necessary to note that the so-called relativistic drift Hamiltonian (Boozer 1996), and the gyrokinetic theories based on it (Cooper 1997), are limited by the applicability range of the drift equations given by Northrop (1963), i.e., assume non-relativistic drifts. The covariant drift equations require no such assumptions.

Covariant descriptions of guiding center dynamics have been published earlier, in the most complete form by Fradkin (1978). He first used the decomposition of motion of a charged particle into two quasi-independent motions in orthogonal invariant planes of the electromagnetic field tensor. Equations of motion were derived in the first order in inhomogeneity, without the wave fields. However, explicit use of the proper time for parameterization of the trajectory makes his expressions difficult to adapt to the gyrokinetic description, where parameterization should be applicable to the guiding center trajectory. Later, Beklemishev & Tessarotto (1999) showed that without such parameterization the choice of the decomposition planes becomes a matter of convenience rather than necessity.

The goal of the present work is two-fold. First, adopting the covariant gyrokinetic approach developed earlier (Beklemishev & Tessarotto 1999) we intend to describe particle dynamics in the presence of non-uniform and strong electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational fields, accurate to second order in the Larmor radius, and treating consistently the effect of short-wavelength EM perturbations. The basic features of the approach, allowing the relativistic drifts typical of many astrophysical plasmas, are the assumption of a non-vanishing parallel electric field and the description of particle dynamics in the field-related basis tetrad, which allows a simpler formulation of the relativistic equations of motion. Second, the perturbative theory is employed to derive the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations expressed in gyrokinetic variables accurate through second order in (which is the ratio of the gyro-radius/gyrotime to the equilibrium gradient length/time) while the wave fields are taken into account in the second order in the amplitude. The gyrophase-averaged expression of the four-current density appearing in Maxwell equations is evaluated with the same accuracy.

In contrast to non-covariant formulations, since the space and time variables are treated in a parallel fashion, the applicability limits of gyrokinetic theory are extended - the wave fields can be fast oscillating in time ( ), as well as in space ( ), while the customary assumption is not required. As a result, we find a contribution to the magnetic moment which is proportional to the usually neglected parallel component of the wave-field. An important feature of this work is its relative simplicity, which allows us to present results with the gyrophase-averaging performed explicitly. (The usual way of doing this is by leaving the averaging along the particle trajectory to the reader's computer; see, for example, Brizard & Chan 1999.) However, currently there is also a limitation linked to our approach, namely, in the case of a vanishing background parallel electric field, only certain polarizations of the wave field are allowed. Namely, the wave field should be describable by just two components of the vector potential, both orthogonal to the magnetic field (in the reference frame where the electric field vanishes), or have a large wavelength, to be described as part of the main field. We intend to eliminate this restriction in the future.

Another work dealing with the covariant representation of the gyrokinetic theory (for a flat space-time) is the Ph.D. Thesis of Boghosian (1987). It extends the covariant description of charged particle guiding center motion developed by Fradkin (1978). In line with non-covariant treatments Boghosian assumes a vanishing parallel component of the electric field and the usual gyrokinetic ordering for admissible wave forms, and thus has to modify Maxwell equations to maintain the assumed properties. His derivation is also conducted only to first-order both in nonuniformity and in the wave-amplitude.

The structure of the paper is as follows: The hybrid Hamilton variational principle is formulated in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 we present the definition of the basis tetrad and its link to the Faraday tensor. In Sect. 4 the relativistic gyrokinetic transformation is derived to second order in , and in the wave amplitude. The Euler equations for the gyrocenter trajectories are formulated in Sect. 5. Maxwell equations with the current and charge densities, expressed in terms of the distribution function as a function of the gyrokinetic variables, and integrated in the gyrophase, are presented in Sect. 6. In the Conclusion the results of the paper are summarized.

Construction of the gyrokinetic transformation for the one-particle Hamiltonian system requires a description of the particle dynamics in phase-space. It is possible to redefine the Hamilton variational principle in such a way that it becomes suitable for the phase-space description of motion in non-canonical variables (Cary & Littlejohn 1983). We refer to this as "the hybrid Hamilton variational principle''. In the framework of general relativity the four-dimensional formulation of the Hamilton variational principle is well known (Landau & Lifshits 1975). It makes it possible to describe the particle trajectory (or its world-line) as a four-dimensional extremal curve. In this section a hybrid form of this variational principle, suitable for the description of particle dynamics in the seven-dimensional phase-space (Beklemishev & Tessarotto 1999), is recalled.

The relevant tensor notations are standard. Thus,
denotes the
metric tensor components, characterizing the coordinate system (and the
underlying space-time structure). It also provides the connection between
the co- and countervariant components of four-vectors (henceforth referred
to as 4-vectors)
.
The signature of
is assumed to be
,
while the invariant interval
is
defined as

where the Greek indices are assumed to go through .

The four-velocity
is then defined in terms of its countervariant
components according to

The scalar product of any 4-vector by itself, or its square length, is not sign-definite. If its sign is negative, we shall call the 4-vector "space-like'', while if it is positive, the 4-vector is "time-like''. Unit 4-vectors are those with square lengths equal to . In these terms, because of (1) is the unit, time-like 4-vector

The motion or the world-line of a particle with rest-mass

where

Finally, we note that the above variational principle, as any Lagrangian
variational principle, is gauge invariant, i.e., any change of the
generating differential 1-form of the type

where

The use of a tetrad of four-vectors is a well-known type of description of curved space-time (Landau & Lifshits 1975), which makes it possible to replace complex derivatives of the metric tensor by derivatives of the tetrad components. We adopt this approach below, while also finding it convenient to link our tetrad to properties of the electromagnetic field, or the Faraday tensor,

We first introduce an orthogonal basis of unit 4-vectors
so that the last three
4-vectors are space-like, and

where is the purely antisymmetric tensor. This last requirement is necessary for distinguishing between the left and right basis configurations. As long as the orientation of is arbitrary, it can be constructed with 6 free parameters (3 pure space rotations and 3 space-time rotations). The choice of orientation is assumed to depend only on .

A special choice of orientation links the basis to the electromagnetic field tensor, . We shall refer to this choice of basis as field-related and use it henceforth. With this choice the -plane coincides with the space-like invariant plane of the antisymmetric tensor In some sense this corresponds to the magnetic coordinates of non-relativistic treatments. Fradkin (1978) used these invariant planes of the electromagnetic field tensor for the decomposition of motion of a charged particle.

Any non-degenerate antisymmetric tensor of rank 4,
in
particular, has two orthogonal invariant planes. In our case one of them is
space-like, i.e., any vector belonging to it has negative length, while the
other contains both time-like and space-like vectors. Each of the invariant
planes has an associated eigenvalue. This means that if
is the first invariant plane, then
is the
other, and if *H* and *E* are the eigenvalues of
,
then

(Both equalities in the second line have the same sign due to the signature of the metric tensor. The physical meaning is that

Due to these properties of the basis, the Faraday tensor can be fully
expressed via its components as

The bivector combinations entering the above expression

can be viewed as linear operators, which combine projection on an invariant plane with an orthogonal turn in it, i.e., each carries full information about an oriented plane. Then

while the pure projection operators introduced by Fradkin (1978) can be expressed as

Since and it is easy to check that the inverse of the Faraday tensor, is

It exists, provided that is not degenerate, i.e., . This inverse of the Faraday tensor can also be expressed via its dual, namely,

(12) |

Indeed,

(13) |

The object of gyrokinetics is to introduce a new set of phase-space variables (called the gyrokinetic variables) such that the variable describing the rotation angle along the Larmor orbit (i.e., the gyrophase ) becomes ignorable. This happens, by definition, when the Lagrangian (or, more generally, the functional) is independent of . Once an ignorable variable is found, the number of corresponding Euler equations is reduced by one, and the new variables allow simplified numerical calculations, as the motion is effectively integrated over the fast Larmor rotation. The one-to-one transformation from the original set of phase-space variables to the gyrokinetic variables is called the gyrokinetic transformation. In what follows to find these variables we use the Lagrangian perturbative approach, which is equivalent (in broad terms) to the Lie-transform method, though more direct.

Indeed, we can search for the necessary transformation, representing it as a Taylor-series expansion in small parameters (inhomogeneity and wave amplitude). Then, in each order we can require the transformed functional to be independent of the gyrophase (the ignorable variable), and thus find the transformation and the new phase-independent functional order by order. For this we should be sure that 1) the solution in the necessary order exists; and 2) that the procedure converges. The existence of the solution depends on the choice of the expansion form and is proven operationally, i.e., by direct construction. Then the true dynamical system becomes replaced by the new artificial one, described by the phase-independent Lagrangian of that order. There is also the problem of convergence, i.e., how accurate the gyrokinetic description is. This problem is common to all gyrokinetic (and drift) theories and has not yet been explored in detail. From the physical viewpoint, the artificial system has no cyclotron resonances, while the real one has them, but their width decreases with the small parameters. The gyrokinetic approach cannot work within this thin but possibly interlinking Arnold web of resonances, where the adiabatic invariants are not conserved. Outside the resonances one can claim that since the difference between the real and the artificial Lagrangians is limited and tends to zero within some suitable measure, the behaviour of the gyrokinetic system is similar to that of the real systems.

We begin the search for the gyrokinetic transformation by a suitable
definition of the small parameters, i.e., we assume that the curvature
radius of the space-time and the gradient lengths of the background
electromagnetic fields are much larger than the Larmor radius characterizing
the particle path. However, we allow for the existence of wave fields with
sharp gradients [
including
], and rapidly varying in time [
], while such fields are assumed suitably smaller in strength than the
background field. (We stress that, unlike in conventional formulations of
gyrokinetic theory, this type of ordering is required in a covariant theory
due to the reference-frame dependence of the ordering assumptions involving
space and time scale lengths of the perturbations.) For this purpose we
introduce the ordering scheme following the notation of Littlejohn (1984):

where and are formal small parameters (they should be set to 1 in the final results) allowing distinction between the large-scale background field and the wave fields given by . We search for the gyrokinetic transformation in the form of an expansion in powers of :

where is the ignorable phase variable (gyrophase), and represent two more independent velocity characteristics (to be defined later), is the 4-vector guiding center position, are arbitrary 4-vector functions of the new variables (

This search consists in applying the expansion (15) to the fundamental 1-form (14), and imposing the requirement that it is independent of in each order. Since the 1-form itself depends on expansion in this parameter will also appear.

Since the difference between
and
is assumed
small compared to the gradient lengths, the background field components
(unlike the wave terms) can be expanded in the Taylor series

where Furthermore, we assume that the gravitational field and the metric coefficients have the same order of the gradient length, and thus can also be expanded around However, it is not necessary. It is sufficient to use the primed metric tensor for lifting and lowering indexes of primed tensor components. Finally, the vector components in the new variables (

Here means the differential of with respect to all other variables of the set keeping constant. As usual, the factor is introduced to denote the fast dependence characterizing the Larmor rotation.

Equation (15) define only four out of seven transformation rules for the gyrokinetic transformation . The rest are chosen in the following way.

First, we express the four-velocity in the new variables as

which can be also regarded as the definition for the gyrophase :it is defined as

Furthermore, we assume that
and *u*_{o} are independent
of .
The validity of this assumption is justified by the existence of
the solution (at least for a non-degenerate Faraday tensor). Then, the -independent part of the 4-velocity
is not completely
arbitrary, but satisfies certain restrictions following from the requirement
for all :

Any two of three scalar functions

Let us substitute expressions (15), (17) into (14) and
drop terms of order
or smaller:

(21) |

Following Beklemishev & Tessarotto (1999) we construct the gauge-modified functional

= | |||

(22) |

so that after using Eq. (16) to represent and

(23) |

we get

where

is given by Eq. (17), and is the tensor of the electromagnetic field at :

(26) |

We also decomposed the tetrad vectors around in Eqs. (24), (25), so that the definition of is shifted to that point.

Now it is straightforward to eliminate from terms oscillating in by properly defining displacements We carry out the calculations for each order in and .

Initially we drop all terms in Eq. (24), which are of order
or higher, while retaining contributions of order .
The conditions for
to be ignorable for the gauge-modified
functional
,
where *R* is an arbitrary Gauge function look like

Here denotes the oscillating part of

yields the only essential requirements. The physical meaning of Eq.( In the text 29 ) is the relationship between the first-order gyro-radius and the velocity along the Larmor orbit. The time-like component describes changes in energy due to displacements of charge in the electric field.

If the above requirements (27) and (28) are satisfied and
is ignorable, the phase-space variational principle in our
approximation can be expressed as
with

(30) |

Equation (29) can be formally solved for to yield

where is given by Eq. (11), provided that is not degenerate. As a result, the -independent functional becomes

where is the wave-field-modified magnetic moment, accurate to order ,

and

If the Faraday tensor is degenerate but the magnetic field is non-zero,
i.e., *E*=0, ,
a solution of Eq. (29) exists for a special
choice of the wave potential satisfying
i.e., when the
projection of
is zero.
Then the above expressions are valid with the replacement
.
For other choices of the wave potential
there is no solution, meaning that we need to modify our representation of
the gyrokinetic transformation, Eqs. (15) and (18). This case
will be discussed elsewhere.

The evaluation of the gyrophase averages involving the wave field is, of course, the difficult part. The reason for this is the necessity of
transforming the given function of space-time coordinates
into a function of new variables, while the transformation rule (15), (31) is itself dependent on .
A solution of the equation

can only be obtained by expanding in powers of .

The solution of the problem in the limit
has already been
published by Beklemishev & Tessarotto (1999). By varying the functional (32) with respect to ,
we find
i.e.,

(35) |

the magnetic moment calculated in the reference frame where and are parallel is the first integral of motion in our approximation.

Now it is possible to rewrite the functional (32) using Eq. (19) and
in place of *w*^{2}:

with .

Using the -independent functional (36) in the variational principle, defines the particle trajectory in terms of the new gyrokinetic variables . This set is non-canonical, but further transformations of the variables (not involving ) also lead to -independent functionals, and thus can be used to transform to canonical variables, if necessary.

We return to the approximation (24) with
determined by
the lower-order requirement (29). This yields

Choosing the independent velocity variables to be and , and noting that is independent of we can write

(37) |

Inserting this into leads to the following conditions for the gauge-modified functional, with arbitrary , to be independent of :

(40) |

where is given by Eq. (25). The last equation can always be satisfied by a suitable choice of , Eqs. (39) define the second-order displacement while Eq. (38) can be regarded as a solvability condition. Using the solution for it can also be rewritten as

With
,
and in view of the antisymmetric properties of
Eq. (41) becomes

which is satisfied identically if the -plane is the invariant plane of since it is orthogonal to . Thus the field-related choice of the basis vectors (see Eqs. (7), (8)) is sufficient for the solvability of the second-order problem.

In the current approximation,

Then, Eq. (39) can be rewritten as

while the -independent functional becomes

(43) |

The average is zero, and we get

as in the lower order approximation, i.e., there are no second-order (in ) corrections to the magnetic moment. Thus, the second order modifications to the Lagrangian can be described as inhomogeneity contributions to the effective electromagnetic potential, while the form of the adiabatic invariant remains unchanged.

Using the explicit expression for
it is possible to evaluate averages, so that

(44) |

where

Describes the inhomogeneity of the electromagnetic field.

As one can see, it is not necessary to actually solve for to find the transformed Lagrangian. It is only necessary to be sure that the solution exists, which is true for the "field-related'' choice of the basis.

We proceed by considering the linear approximation in the wave-field amplitude without high order curvature effects. As noted above, the main problem here is the transformation of the highly-local wave field , where is the particle position, to the guiding-center coordinates . The Taylor-expansion procedure used above for the transformation of the equilibrium field fails if the wavelength is sufficiently short. To avoid this problem, Eq. (34) is solved using Fourier analysis and expansion in powers of .

Assume that the wave field is given in terms of its Fourier components
then Eq. (34) becomes

where only the second exponential factor depends on .

Here the ordering of the wave-vector is such that as usual (Littlejohn 1984) , except that the time-like component of is proportional to the wave frequency, and the ordering for it is equivalent to where is the cyclotron frequency, and not as in conventional approaches; besides, the above ordering is also applicable to i.e., is assumed in place of the usual ordering . Therefore, our approach in this respect has a wider applicability range. This is inevitable, for the reference frame may move with relativistic velocity across the short-wavelength wave field, so that fast oscillations in time may result anyway. However, the particle, drifting across the wave field, will experience a quite definite oscillation frequency as well as the wavelength, which is taken into account by our definition of , introduced below.

We can calculate the required averages in Eqs. (32) and (33) by
using the expansion of Eq. (46) into a Fourier series in .
We
use the following identity (Abramovits & Stegun 1972)

to get

Here

where is the length of , which is the projection of on the -plane; is the angle of with respect to the -basis, is the Larmor radius.

To the order
,
in the expression (48) can be set
to 0, so that its zero-order solution is just

Note that neglecting the last exponent in Eq. (48) or solving by expansion in powers of is possible only if the particle displacement from the equilibrium orbit due to the wave field is much smaller than the wavelength.

Now the averages, present in expressions (32), (33), become

So that to the order

(53) |

Note that this definition of is invariant under gauge transformations of , and the adiabatic invariant can also be rewritten in terms of Fourier components of the electromagnetic field tensor of the wave :

(55) |

where is essentially the parallel component of the wave field. This effect is usually neglected in the standard gyrokinetic ordering, so that the first order contribution to the magnetic moment vanishes.

The second-order nonlinear corrections are responsible, in particular, for three-wave interactions. Calculating them for a general Fourier-decomposed wave field would allow subsequent construction of a weak-turbulence theory. For other effects, such as the estimate of the Miller force of the high-frequency field on a particle, just the eikonal representation of the wave is sufficient. Below we adopt the first, more complete description.

In this approximation we can use the -independent variational principle (32) with properly defined parameters. Indeed, besides which is added to the effective vector potential, , there is one other significant contribution to the Lagrangian from the wave terms. It enters into the definition of the adiabatic invariant via Eq. (33), so that , where is given by Eq. (54).

The second order contribution to the adiabatic invariant is given by

The second term in this expression can be found using the zero-order solution (50), while the first involves the first-order correction,

Expanding the last exponent in Eq. (48) in powers of
we
get

where

(58) |

by definition. The average of Eq. (57) then looks like

(59) |

The sum of the Bessel-function products in the above expression can be simplified using the Graf addition theorem for Bessel functions (Abramovits & Stegun 1972). This theorem can be cast in the form

where

where , The triangle is formed by four-vectors in the -plane.

Using the definition of
and taking into account the identity
(60) with *l*=0, we reduce the first-order correction to
to the following expression

Then, seeking the oscillating part of the first-order correction as a series

and using Eq. (57), we find that the coefficients satisfy

(63) |

The sum under the integral can be found using the identity (60) as

= | |||

= |

Fortunately, knowledge of the first harmonics is sufficient for the evaluation of . Indeed, the necessary average can be calculated as

= | |||

= | |||

After substituting the definitions of the above expression becomes

(64) |

where

Proceeding now to calculation of the second term in Eq. (56) we note
that

(65) |

Using again the addition theorem for Bessel functions (60) with

(66) |

with

(67) |

Then

(68) |

Finally, incorporating the above averages into Eq. (56), the second-order correction to the adiabatic invariant (magnetic moment) becomes

where

(70) |

The above results, Eqs. (62), (69), look complicated because of the presence of general three-wave interactions. Indeed, they show that contributions to the particle parameters with the wave vector come from all pairs of electromagnetic perturbations with the same sum of the wave vector . If we are interested in the average Miller force only, it is sufficient to retain only the zero-sum pairs, , so that , which simplifies the expressions significantly.

As one can see, the above results are not gauge invariant with respect to
gauge transformations of the wave potential .
This problem can be
resolved using gauge-invariance of the variational principle (4), (14). Indeed, any transformation of the potential

can be compensated by

so that the functional remains the same. Conversely, any transformation of type (72) leads to an equivalent variational principle, while the difference can be hidden in .

The above program of calculating the gyrokinetic transformation and the -independent description of motion can be carried out for an arbitrary
gauge function *f*. This means that expressions obtained in the above
subsections should also be valid for

with an arbitrary function . Thus, any gauge transformations of the wave potential lead to different, but still valid expressions.

Finally, we summarize the results of this section by presenting the
transformed variational principle valid through the second order in
and second order in
i.e., with terms of the order
and
retained:
yields the particle phase-space trajectory with

where or are the new gyrokinetic variables with

where

(75) |

, and the second-order corrections and are given by Eqs. (69) and (62), respectively. The orthogonal basis is chosen in such a way that coincides with the space-like invariant plane of the antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field , with

The single-particle distribution function can be written in general
relativity either in the eight-dimensional phase space
or in the seven-dimensional phase
space
where only 3 components of the 4-velocity
are independent, so that

The -function here reflects the fact that is the first integral of motion in the case of the eight-dimensional representation. However, the collisionless kinetic equation in both cases retains the same form, namely

although in the 7-dimensional case only, while

where the differentials are tangent to the particle orbit.

Because of the general properties of variable transformations it is obvious
that *any* non-degenerate transformation of the phase-space variables
will lead to the same form of the
kinetic equation

where the differentials are tangent to the particle orbit. In particular, this property is useful for the transformation to the gyrokinetic variables.

Let
,
then the kinetic equation becomes

By definition of the gyrokinetic variables the dynamic equations should be independent of , i.e., expressions for are independent of , while is periodic in . It follows that and, if is the integral of motion, , we get the kinetic equation expressed in the gyrokinetic variables as

which we shall call the gyrokinetic equation. Here the coefficients and must be determined from the equations of motion in the gyrokinetic variables.

While the above derivation seems simple, there is a trick. Even if we prove
that there is no -dependence in *all* orders, this does not mean
that there is no such dependence at all. In fact, this is what happens close
to the cyclotron resonances - the exponentially small (and thus having zero
expansion coefficients) resonant factor destroys the conservation of the
magnetic moment, rendering the gyrokinetic theory invalid. It should always
be kept in mind that the approximation works well for particles far from the
low-order cyclotron resonances.

Another question is: why is it so important to have
parameterization-independent equations of motion? Would it be possible to
use, say, Fradkin's drift equations with the proper-time parameterization to
construct the gyrokinetic equation in an alternative way? The answer follows
from the transformation of the Liouville Eq. (76) with the
transformation of the phase-space variables. Since its meaning is the
conservation of world lines, the form is retained for canonical-like
transformations (with a constant Jacobian). Otherwise, for an arbitrary set
of non-canonical drift equations of motion, one has to prove that the
Jacobian is at least independent of the gyrophase, in order to exclude this
variable from the gyrokinetic equation. In other terms, kinetic Eq. (77) (with coefficients
independent of )
cannot
be transformed into the gyrokinetic equation, unless
is also independent of .
This
requirement is not fulfilled for Fradkin's equations, since the proper time *s* depends on the gyrophase with periodic corrections due to changes of
velocity along the orbit.

The equations of motion, or the relationships between differentials tangent
to the particle orbit, can be obtained as Euler equations of the transformed
variational principle (74). Let us find the first variation of *S*assuming
to be
independent:

= | |||

Here we introduced a new tensor notation

(79) |

where the operator is defined by

Extrema of the functional are achieved for world lines where
for all variations of independent variables. This yields the Euler equations
as

The first equation here confirms that is an integral of motion, the second equation determines the rate of rotation along the Larmor orbit and is not needed for our purposes here. By multiplying the 4-vector Eq. (83) by and taking the sum in one can recover the third scalar Eq. (82) multiplied by , i.e., out of five equations for four unknown functions only four are independent, as should be the case for solvability. This allows us to determine the non-trivial solutions (at least formally) and use them as coefficients of the gyrokinetic equation.

It is convenient to rewrite the 4-vector Eq. (83) through its
projections on the orthogonal vectors of the basis
Taking scalar products with
we get

These two equations determine the drift velocity. Taking the scalar product with , we recover the following equation governing the acceleration parallel to the magnetic field

Simplification occurred since the -plane for the field-related choice of the basis coincides with the second invariant plane of the electromagnetic field tensor, so that (see Eqs. (7), (8)). Then, the last equation looks like

which is the energy conservation law. However, as shown above, in its place one can use another, equivalent but much more compact Eq. (82). It describes the relationship between and the differentials of the guiding-center position

It is possible to formally solve Eqs. (84)-(88) in terms of the basis vectors. To do this we introduce new notations,

(89) |

and for arbitrary four-vectors . Note that i.e., is orthogonal to the particle world-velocity, and thus is orthogonal to the drift velocity too, as expressed by Eq. (88).

Searching for the solution in the form
,
and substituting it into
Eqs. (84), (85), we get

(90) |

Note that here is just an arbitrary scalar function, which can be chosen as convenient. It means that the above equations determine just the direction of the world line of the gyrocenter in the phase space, but do not define its parameterization.

Consider a coordinate system chosen in such a way that the dependence of all
functions on
(with some particular )
vanishes:
.
Then

and the -component of the Euler Eq. (83) becomes

(92) |

Here the conservation of the magnetic moment, Eq. (80), and the absence of any dependence on are taken into account.

This means that

is the integral of motion corresponding to the symmetry with respect to .

In general, the kinetic description of plasmas involves a combination of the kinetic equation and Maxwell equations, which describe the evolution of the collective (Hartree-Fock) electromagnetic fields. The same is true for the gyrokinetic theory. However, since the gyrokinetic equation is written in specific gyrokinetic variables, and thus yields the distribution function in terms of these variables, one should have a special procedure of integration in velocity space to calculate the source terms of Maxwell equations. This procedure is presented below. Fortunately, the Jacobian of the gyrokinetic transformation in the present formulation is simple enough to allow integration in the gyrophase, so that expressions for the charge and current densities via the gyrokinetic distribution function are found explicitly.

The general form of Maxwell equations in the presence of an arbitrary
gravitational field is well known (Landau & Lifshits 1975). The first pair of equations
can be written as

(94) |

and the second as

where

(96) |

is the current density, expressed via the distribution function of particle species , and the signed particle charge . The -function under the integral makes it possible to do a partial integration, for example over

However, in the gyrokinetic transformation the four-velocity is expressed via Eqs. (18)-(20) as

(97) |

so that (the sign is positive due to Eq. (6)), while the partial integration over leads to

(98) |

where As a result, the expression for the components of the current density can be rewritten as

In Eq. (99) the particle position rather than its gyrocenter position is kept constant while integrating over the particle velocity. This means, that if the distribution function is given as a function of the gyrokinetic variables , it is necessary to transform it to particle coordinates via the inverse transformation

before integrating. Furthermore, here we assumed that the distribution function is defined in terms of the orbital velocity

The gyrokinetic transformation has been found by expansion in orders of
and ,
and this expansion has to be exploited here
again:

(101) |

The distribution function may have short-wavelength wave contributions, which can be separated from the slowly changing background by using the ordering scheme

(102) |

In these terms the zero-order current and charge density is easy to find:

(103) |

while other orders require expansion.

The background distribution function
is slowly changing
on the Larmor-radius/gyrotime-scale, and thus can be expanded into a
Taylor series around the particle position. Note that the displacements
are given by the gyrokinetic transformation as functions of
and thus should be expanded
as well. Keeping terms of the order of
and larger, we
find

Here all functions on the right-hand side can be regarded as functions of the particle position . Meanwhile, due to dependence of the tetrad in the velocity representation on , and due to the use of

The first order displacement of the gyrocenter is given by

(105) |

Using it, we find the first-order current density as

(106) |

Its structure corresponds to the usual diamagnetic current.

Similarly, it is necessary to solve Eq. (42) for in order to calculate the second-order current density. The form of this equation (for ) is such that may have components proportional to first and second powers of trigonometric functions of namely, It is multiplied by the velocity, which has terms with the zero and first powers of the same, so that a range of first- to third-power terms are produced. However, of that range only the second-power terms can produce a non-zero contribution after integrating in , so that in the following we ignore other terms. The same argument applies to the expansion (104) as a whole.

First we solve for
which satisfies

(107) |

then we find

(108) |

The next combination of terms is

(109) |

where satisfies

(110) |

After substitutions we find

(111) |

where as before.

The last remaining terms in Eq. (104) contribute to the current via
combination

(112) |

As a result, we can get the second-order current density as where

(113) |

belongs to the -plane, while

(114) |

has no components.

The parallel component, , represents the FLR corrections to the charge density and the parallel current density. It is rarely used, since it is two orders smaller than and has the same direction. The perpendicular component, , describes currents caused by the drifts in inhomogeneous fields.

First we calculate the transformation to the particle position variables

(115) |

Retaining in the exponent terms of order only [while ], we get

The last term in the exponent can be neglected in this order, and the rest can be expanded into the Fourier series using Eq. (47) as

(117) |

where as before, . Then,

(118) |

Note that the above expression describes the parallel current due to the wave, as well as the corresponding diamagnetic contribution.

The nonlinear corrections follow while the formerly neglected last term in
the exponent of Eq. (116) is taken into account. The resulting
first-order correction to
looks like

where is taken at the particle position.

In principle,
is a prescribed function of the particle position,
but its oscillating part is not. It is
necessary to transform the zero-order solution, Eq. (50),

(120) |

back to particle position coordinates via the inverse transformation (100) . Then

(121) |

Thus the combination appearing in Eq. (119) can be rewritten as

(122) |

where we have used the addition theorem for Bessel functions, Eq. (60), again, so that etc.

Now we can calculate

= | (123) | ||

(124) |

where as before.

One can see that the nonlinear correction to the current density is due to the interaction of the perturbation of the distribution function with the perturbation of the particle motion, satisfying the three-wave interaction criteria.

A closed set of relativistic gyrokinetic equations, consisting of the collisionless gyrokinetic equation and the averaged Maxwell equations, is derived for an arbitrary four-dimensional coordinate system.

The basic features of the approach are as follows:

- the guiding-center dynamics of charged particles and the gyrokinetic
transformation are obtained in the second order in terms of the ratio of the
Larmor radius to the inhomogeneity scale;
- the wave terms with arbitrary
are described in the second-order approximation in the amplitude of the wave;
- the present description is closed, in the sense that it includes the
gyrophase-averaged expression for the four-current density, which is used
with Maxwell equations;
- the perturbative Lagrangian approach with a fully relativistic,
four-dimensional covariant formulation allows us to improve on the existing
limitations of the gyrokinetic theory: in comparison to equations derived by
other authors it is now possible to consider relativistic drift velocities,
i.e.,
,
and the wave field is no longer limited in frequency
and wavelength, i.e.,
,
so that the class of admissible waves is broader than
the usual drift-Alfvén
perturbations and can include magneto-sonic waves, for
example;
- the covariant description of the gyro-dynamics of charged particles in a strong magnetic field allows for the possibility of the gravitation influencing the space-time metrics, and thus is suitable for the investigation of astrophysical objects such as accretion disks and relativistic jets.

- The plasma should be magnetized, and the Larmor radius should be
smaller than both characteristic scales: the Keplerian orbit radius, and the
inverse gradient of the electromagnetic field across the accretion disc. The
second scale is likely to be smaller for thin disks. Thus, significant FLR
(finite-Larmor-radius) corrections are likely to arise when the disk
thickness is comparable to the Larmor radius.
- Collisions, and the cyclotron/synchrotron radiation should not change
the particle energy too much during the time scale of the processes under
investigation. The second limitation is less severe if the plasma is
optically thick, i.e., the cyclotron emission is collective.
- One can describe plasmas even within the last stable orbit, but no closer than one Larmor radius from the events horizon of the black hole.

- If the wavelength is smaller than the Larmor radius, one can still throw out the gyrokinetic wave terms and use the zero-order theory. Otherwise, the FLR-corrections given by the wave terms are significant.

This work has been conducted via the cooperation program between the Trieste University, Italy, and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia.

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