A&A 382, 1-5 (2002)
D. Papadopoulos 1 - L. Vlahos 1 - F. P. Esposito 2
1 - Department of Physics, Aristoteleion University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki, Greece
2 - Department of Physics, University of Cincinati, Cincinaty, OH 45219, USA
Received 10 July 2001 / Accepted 18 October 2001
The excitation of low frequency plasma waves in an expanding anisotropic cosmological model that contains a magnetic field frozen into the matter and pointing in the longitudinal direction is discussed. Using the exact equations governing finite-amplitude wave propagation in hydromagnetic media within the framework of the general theory of relativity, we show that a spectrum of magnetized sound waves will be excited and form large-scale "damped oscillations'' in the expanding universe. The characteristic frequency of the excited waves is slightly shifted away from the sound frequency and the shift depends on the strength of the primordial magnetic field. This magnetic field dependent shift may have an effect on the acoustic peaks of the CMB.
Key words: relativity - magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) - waves-cosmology: early Universe
The observed magnetic field in the clusters and galaxies is in energy equipartition with the gas and the cosmic rays in these systems. The observed magnetic field may be primordial in nature, being left over from the early universe, or created when the first structures formed. Even if we assume the presence of a protogalactic dynamo, to explain the magnitude of the magnetic field still requires a small primordial field. It is a difficult task to determine if the origin of the cluster or the galactic magnetic field is primordial. In contrast, the role of the magnetic field in the fluctuations spectrum of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies can provide bounds in the large-scale magnetic field of the early universe (see Adams et al. 1996; Barrow et al. 1997; Enqvist 1997; Olinto 1997; Durrer et al. 1998).
Many recent studies used a Newtonian or a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model for the evolving Universe and super-impose a large-scale ordered magnetic field. The magnetic field is assumed to be too weak to destroy the Robertson-Walker isotropy. The anisotropy induced by the magnetic field is treated as perturbation (Durrer et al. 1998; Ruzmakina & Ruzmakin 1971; Tsagas & Barrow 1998). Current observations give a strong motivation for the adoption of a FRW model (see reviews above) but the uncertainties on the cosmological standard model are several and the limits of the approximations and the effects one losses by neglecting the anisotropy of the background magnetic field should be investigated.
In this article, departing from the traditional approach, we adopt an anisotropic cosmological model, developed initially by Thorn (1967) and Jacobs (1968). In this model the magnetic field is responsible for the initial anisotropic expansion of the universe. The model is homogeneous and has two equivalent "transverse" directions and one inequivalent "longitudinal" direction at each point in space time. It contains a perfect fluid obeying a ``stiff'' equation of state with The magnetic field is frozen into the matter and directed along the longitudinal direction.
We analyze the stability of the linear perturbations using the above model. Magnetized density perturbations were studied in detail in Kim (1996) using a Newtonian model for the evolving Universe. Several authors used the FRW model to study magnetized perturbations in the radiation era (see Holcomb & Tajima 1989), the dissipation of MHD waves in recombination era (Jedamzik et al. 2000) and in the inflanatory era (Brevik & Sandvik 2000). The propagation of the magnetosonic waves in sub-horizon and super-horizon scales were discussed by Tsagas & Maartens (2000a) and more recently a magnetized Biannchi I background model was used to study the coupling of the magnetism with the geometry (Tsagas & Maartens 2000b).
The main scope of this study is to search for the spectrum of the unstable low frequency plasma waves in an anisotropic model for the universe, using the formalism developed by Papadopoulos & Esposito (1982). In Sect. 2 we present the basic equations used and in Sect. 3 we perturb the MHD equations keeping first order terms and searching for solutions when the perturbed quantities have the form of a plane wave. We derived the linear dispersion relation for the magnetosonic waves and search for the spectrum of excited waves.
The general relativistic version of the magnetohydrodynamic
We linearize the perturbed and search for the amplification or
damping of small amplitude hydromagnetic waves in the early
universe described by the well known anisotropic cosmological
model (Thorn 1967),
The ratio of the cyclotron ( ) to plasma ( ) frequency is a function of The cyclotron frequency tends to zero as or and the ratio remains bounded when
The Standard Hot Big Bang (SHBB) is roughly divided into two regimes, the radiation dominated era, for which the and the (pressurless) matter dominated era, for which Thus, at first, it seems not possible for the Universe to experience a stiffer equation of state, with . However, with a simple extension of SHBB it is possible to achieve this in a rather natural way.
One prominent example is cosmologies which include a scalar field component in the matter content of the Universe. A homogeneous scalar field can be treated as an ideal gas with density and pressure , where and are the field's kinetic and scalar potential energy respectively. In the case then and if dominates the Universe then the latter is forced to undergo accelerated expansion. Such a situation, if taken to occur at the very first stages of the Universe evolution, is the typical realization of inflation, in which is called the inflaton field (Olive 1990). At the end of the inflationary period usually oscillates around the minimum of and decays into other particles creating the thermal bath of the SHBB. However, non-oscillatory models of inflation exist in which the inflation does not decay at the end of the inflation but, instead, transforms into a rapid roll-down of its steep potential (Felder et al. 1999). In such models the Universe during this phase continues to be dominated by the scalar field but this time we have so that . This period is usually referred to as kination or deflation (Joyce & Procopec 1998). Eventually kination ends and the SHBB begins. At the transition between kination and radiation domination we have a change of from .
In the next section we derive the dispersion relation for the low frequency waves, assuming that all the perturbed quantities can be expressed in the form
We assume that the wave vector and the external magnetic field are
along the z-axis
the perturbations of the fluid velocity and the magnetic field
have a general form
After some long but
straigh forward calculations, we derive the generalized
It is easy to verify that the dispersion relation (Eq. (5)) is simplified considerably in the limit
We re-write Eq. (8) in the form
that the the real part of the excited frequency is much larger
than the imaginary part,
we obtain the frequency of
the excited wave from the equation
The real frequency on the other hand is shifted away from the sound speed
The imaginary part is negative
and a spectrum of low frequencies will be
excited with frequency
The linear density perturbation will have the form
The anisotropic model for the early universe used can approach the weakly magnetized FRW model when . In this case the anisotropic model used here approaches the isotropic FRW model were the magnetic field is a small linear perturbation (Durrer et al. 1998; Ruzmakina & Ruzmakin 1971). Our main results in this article are: (1) The Jeans instability, found early for an Einstein universe with a very particular cosmological constant (Jackson 1972), will be absent since the expansion and the presence of magnetic field will act as a stabilizing force. (2) The anisotropic magnetized Universe re-enforces the stability found initially in the FRW model. (3) A spectrum of low frequency and large amplitude damped oscillations will appear in the early universe with a characteristic frequency where depends on the strength of the primordial magnetic field. This magnetic field-dependent shift may cause measurable distortion of accoustic peaks (see also Adams et al. 1996; Jedamzik et al. 2000; Koh & Lee 2000; Durrer et al. 2001). The amplitude of the excited waves is large in the early universe and gradually decays.
We then conclude that if the universe has passed through a strongly magnetized anisotropic phase, before the recombination era started, the waves predicted here will be responsible for the formation of large-scale fluctuations, as it has been shown in 2-D numerical simulations (Brandenburg et al. 1996).
We grateful to our colleagues Konstantinos Dimopoulos and Christos Tsagas for many stimulating discussions and for making several comments that considerably improved our article.