Non-linear modelling of beat Cepheids: resonant and non-resonant models
Institute for Astronomy (IfA), University of Vienna,
2 Copernicus Astronomical Centre, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa, Poland
Received: 24 March 2010
Accepted: 9 August 2010
Context. Double-periodic (beat) Cepheids are important astrophysical objects which allow testing both the stellar evolution and stellar pulsation theories, as well as the physical properties of matter in stellar conditions. However, the phenomenon of double-periodic pulsation is still poorly understood. Recently we rediscussed the problem of modelling the double-periodic pulsation with non-linear hydrocodes. We showed that the published non-resonant double-mode models are incorrect, because they exclude the negative buoyancy effects.
Aims. We continue our efforts to verify whether the Kuhfuß one-equation convection model with negative buoyancy included can reproduce the double-periodic Cepheid pulsation.
Methods. Using the direct time integration hydrocode, which implements the Kuhfuß convection model, we search for stable double-periodic Cepheid models. We search for models pulsating in both fundamental and first overtone modes (F+1O), as well as in the two lowest order overtones (1O+2O). In the latter case, we focus on reproducing double-overtone Cepheids of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC).
Results. We have found full amplitude non-linear beat Cepheid models of both types, F+1O and 1O+2O. In the case of F+1O models, the beat pulsation is most likely caused by the three-mode resonance, 2ω1 = ω0 + ω2, while in the double-overtone models the underlying mechanism (resonant or non-resonant) cannot be identified beyond doubt. Double-periodic models found in our survey exist, however, only in narrow period ranges and cannot explain the majority of the observed double-periodic objects.
Conclusions. With only little doubt left, we conclude that current one dimensional one-equation convection models are incapable of reproducing the majority of the observed beat Cepheids. Among the shortcomings of current pulsation hydrocodes, the simple treatment of convection seems to be the most severe one. Growing evidence for the presence of non-radial modes in Cepheids suggests that the interaction between radial and non-radial modes should also be investigated.
Key words: hydrodynamics / convection / methods: numerical / stars: oscillations / stars: variables: Cepheids
© ESO, 2010