3D simulations of M star atmosphere velocities and their influence on molecular FeH lines
Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Ansgar.Reiners@phys.uni-goettingen.de
2 GEPI, CIFIST, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France e-mail: Hans.Ludwig@obspm.fr
Accepted: 13 October 2009
Context. The measurement of line broadening in cool stars is in general a difficult task. In order to detect slow rotation or weak magnetic fields, an accuracy of 1 km s-1 is needed. In this regime the broadening from convective motion becomes important. We present an investigation of the velocity fields in early to late M-type star hydrodynamic models, and we simulate their influence on molecular line shapes. The M star model parameters range between of and effective temperatures from 2500 K to 4000 K.
Aims. Our aim is to characterize the - and -dependence of the velocity fields and express them in terms of micro- and macro-turbulent velocities in the one dimensional sense. We present a direct comparison between 3D hydrodynamical velocity fields and 1D turbulent velocities. The velocity fields strongly affect the line shapes of , and it is our goal to give a rough estimate of the and parameter range in which 3D spectral synthesis is necessary and where 1D synthesis suffices. We want to distinguish between the velocity-broadening from convective motion and the rotational- or Zeeman-broadening in M-type stars we are planning to measure. For the latter, lines are an important indicator.
Methods. In order to calculate M-star structure models, we employ the 3D radiative-hydrodynamics (RHD) code CO5BOLD. The spectral synthesis in these models is performed with the line synthesis code LINFOR3D. We describe the 3D velocity fields in terms of a Gaussian standard deviations and project them onto the line of sight to include geometrical and limb-darkening effects. The micro- and macro-turbulent velocities are determined with the “curve of growth” method and convolution with a Gaussian velocity profile, respectively. To characterize the and dependence of lines, the equivalent width, line width, and line depth are examined.
Results. The velocity fields in M-stars strongly depend on and . They become stronger with decreasing and increasing . The projected velocities from the 3D models agree within ~100 m s-1 with the 1D micro- and macro-turbulent velocities. The line quantities systematically depend on and .
Conclusions. The influence of hydrodynamic velocity fields on line shapes of M-type stars can well be reproduced with 1D broadening methods. lines turn out to provide a means to measure and in M-type stars. Since different lines all behave in a similar manner, they provide an ideal measure for rotational and magnetic broadening.
Key words: hydrodynamics: stars: low-mass, brown dwarfs / line: profiles / turbulence / stars: late-type
© ESO, 2009