The clustering of merging star-forming haloes: dust emission as high frequency arcminute CMB foreground
Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3 Space Research Institute (IKI), Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow, 117810, Russia
Accepted: 8 November 2007
Context.Future observations of CMB anisotropies will be able to probe high multipole regions of the angular power spectrum, corresponding to a resolution of a few arcminutes. Dust emission from merging haloes is one of the foregrounds that will affect such very small scales.
Aims.We estimate the contribution to CMB angular fluctuations from objects that are bright in the sub-millimeter band due to intense star formation bursts following merging episodes.
Methods.We base our approach on the Lacey-Cole merger model and on the Kennicutt relation which connects the star formation rate in galaxies with their infrared luminosity. We set the free parameters of the model in order to not exceed the SCUBA source counts, the Madau plot of star formation rate in the universe and COBE/FIRAS data on the intensity of the sub-millimeter cosmic background radiation.
Results.We show that the angular power spectrum arising from the distribution of such star-forming haloes will be one of the most significant foregrounds in the high frequency channels of future CMB experiments, such as PLANCK, ACT and SPT. The correlation term, due to the clustering of multiple haloes at redshift z ~ 2-6, is dominant in the broad range of angular scales 200 l 3000. Poisson fluctuations due to bright sub-millimeter sources are more important at higher l, but since they are generated from the bright sources, such contribution could be strongly reduced if bright sources are excised from the sky maps. The contribution of the correlation term to the angular power spectrum depends strongly on the redshift evolution of the escape fraction of UV photons and the resulting temperature of the dust. The measurement of this signal will therefore give important information about the sub-millimeter emission and the escape fraction of UV photons from galaxies, in the early stage of their evolution.
Key words: cosmology: cosmic microwave background / cosmology: theory / galaxies: intergalactic medium / infrared: galaxies
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