The effect of type I migration on the formation of terrestrial planets in hot-Jupiter systems
Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK e-mail: [M.J.Fogg;R.P.Nelson]@qmul.ac.uk
Accepted: 16 July 2007
Context.Our previous models of a giant planet migrating through an inner protoplanet/planetesimal disk find that the giant shepherds a portion of the material it encounters into interior orbits, whilst scattering the rest into external orbits. Scattering tends to dominate, leaving behind abundant material that can accrete into terrestrial planets.
Aims.We add to the possible realism of our model by simulating type I migration forces which cause an inward drift, and strong eccentricity and inclination damping of protoplanetary bodies. This extra dissipation might be expected to enhance shepherding at the expense of scattering, possibly modifying our previous conclusions.
Methods.We employ an N-body code that is linked to a viscous gas disk algorithm capable of simulating: gas accretion onto the central star; gap formation in the vicinity of the giant planet; type II migration of the giant planet; type I migration of protoplanets; and the effect of gas drag on planetesimals. We use the code to re-run three scenarios from a previous work where type I migration was not included.
Results.The additional dissipation introduced by type I migration enhances the inward shepherding of material but does not severely reduce scattering. We find that >50% of the solids disk material still survives the migration in scattered exterior orbits: most of it well placed to complete terrestrial planet formation at <3 AU. The shepherded portion of the disk accretes into hot-Earths, which survive in interior orbits for the duration of our simulations.
Conclusions.Water-rich terrestrial planets can form in the habitable zones of hot-Jupiter systems and hot-Earths and hot-Neptunes may also be present. These systems should be targets of future planet search missions.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / methods: N-body simulations / astrobiology
© ESO, 2007