Hemispherical transport equation: modeling of quasiparallel collisionless shocks*
Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow Region, Russia e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69029 Heidelberg, Postfach 103980, Germany
Accepted: 2 November 2006
Using a so-called hemispherical model we derive a general transport equation for cosmic ray and thermal particles scattered in pitch angle by magnetic inhomogeneities in a moving collisionless plasma. The weak scattering through 90 degrees results in isotropic particle distributions in each hemisphere. The consideration is not limited by small anisotropies and by the condition that particle velocities are higher than characteristic flow velocity differences. For high velocities and small anisotropies the standard cosmic ray transport equation is recovered. We apply the equations derived for investigation of injection and acceleration of particles by collisionless shocks.
Key words: acceleration of particles / cosmic rays
© ESO, 2007