Volume 461, Number 3, January III 2007
|Page(s)||1195 - 1208|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||16 October 2006|
On the formation of terrestrial planets in hot-Jupiter systems
Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK e-mail: [M.J.Fogg;R.P.Nelson]@qmul.ac.uk
Accepted: 9 October 2006
Context.There are numerous extrasolar giant planets which orbit close to their central stars. These “hot-Jupiters” probably formed in the outer, cooler regions of their protoplanetary disks, and migrated inward to ∼0.1 AU. Since these giant planets must have migrated through their inner systems at an early time, it is uncertain whether they could have formed or retained terrestrial planets.
Aims.We present a series of calculations aimed at examining how an inner system of planetesimals/protoplanets, undergoing terrestrial planet formation, evolves under the influence of a giant planet undergoing inward type II migration through the region bounded between 5–0.1 AU.
Methods.We have previously simulated the effect of gas giant planet migration on an inner system protoplanet/planetesimal disk using a N-body code which included gas drag and a prescribed migration rate. We update our calculations here with an improved model that incorporates a viscously evolving gas disk, annular gap and inner-cavity formation due to the gravitational field of the giant planet, and self-consistent evolution of the giant's orbit.
Results.We find that ≳60% of the solids disk survives by being scattered by the giant planet into external orbits. Planetesimals are scattered outward almost as efficiently as protoplanets, resulting in the regeneration of a solids disk where dynamical friction is strong and terrestrial planet formation is able to resume. A simulation that was extended for a few Myr after the migration of the giant planet halted at 0.1 AU, resulted in an apparently stable planet of ∼2 forming in the habitable zone. Migration–induced mixing of volatile-rich material from beyond the “snowline” into the inner disk regions means that terrestrial planets that form there are likely to be water-rich.
Conclusions.We predict that hot-Jupiter systems are likely to harbor water-abundant terrestrial planets in their habitable zones. These planets may be detected by future planet search missions.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / methods: N-body simulations / astrobiology
© ESO, 2007
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