First stars IX - Mixing in extremely metal-poor giants. Variation of the , [Na/Mg] and [Al/Mg] ratios
GEPI, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92125 Meudon Cedex, France e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 GRAAL, Université de Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France
3 Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, INAF, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
4 European Southern Observatory (ESO), Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
5 The Niels Bohr Institute, Astronomy, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
6 Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association, Apartado 474, 38 700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Spain
7 IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Depto. de Astronomia, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo 05508-900, Brazil
8 Department of Physics & Astronomy, CSCE: Center for the Study of Cosmic Evolution, and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
9 Lund Observatory, Box 43, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
10 European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85749 Garching bei München, Germany
Accepted: 19 April 2006
Context.Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars preserve a fossil record of the composition of the ISM when the Galaxy formed. It is crucial, however, to verify whether internal mixing has modified their surface composition, especially in the giants where most elements can be studied.
Aims.We aim to understand the CNO abundance variations found in some, but not all EMP field giants analysed earlier. Mixing beyond the first dredge-up of standard models is required, and its origin needs clarification.
Methods.The ratio is the most robust diagnostic of deep mixing, because it is insensitive to the adopted stellar parameters and should be uniformly high in near-primordial gas. We have measured abundances in 35 EMP giants (including 22 with ) from high-quality VLT/UVES spectra analysed with LTE model atmospheres. Correlations with other abundance data are used to study the depth of mixing.
Results.The ratio is found to correlate with [C/Fe] (and Li/H), and clearly anti-correlate with [N/Fe], as expected if the surface abundances are modified by CNO processed material from the interior. Evidence for such deep mixing is observed in giants above , brighter than in less metal-poor stars, but matching the bump in the luminosity function in both cases. Three of the mixed stars are also Na- and Al-rich, another signature of deep mixing, but signatures of the ON cycle are not clearly seen in these stars.
Conclusions.Extra mixing processes clearly occur in luminous RGB stars. They cannot be explained by standard convection, nor in a simple way by rotating models. The Na- and Al-rich giants could be AGB stars themselves, but an inhomogeneous early ISM or pollution from a binary companion remain possible alternatives.
Key words: Galaxy: abundances / Galaxy: evolution / stars: abundances / stars: interiors / stars: supernovae: general / stars: evolution
© ESO, 2006