Projection effects in cluster mass estimates: the case of MS2137-23
Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98bis Bd Arago, 75014 Paris, France e-mail: email@example.com
2 Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, OMP, UMR 5572, 14 Av. Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
Accepted: 28 June 2005
We revisit the mass properties of the lensing cluster of galaxies MS2137-23 and assess the mutual agreement between cluster mass estimates based on strong/weak lensing, X-rays and stellar dynamics. We perform a thorough elliptical lens modelling using arcs and their counter-images in the range kpc and weak lensing ( kpc). We confirm that the dark matter distribution is consistent with an NFW profile (Navarro et al., 1997, ApJ, 490, 493) with high concentration . We further analyse stellar kinematics data with a detailed modelling of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) of stars in the cD galaxy and quantify the small bias due to the non-Gaussian shape of the LOSVD. After correction, the NFW lens model is unable to properly fit kinematical data and is a factor of ~2 more massive than suggested by X-rays analysis. The discrepancy between projected (lensing) and tridimensional (X-rays, dynamics) mass estimates is studied by assuming prolate (triaxial) halos with the major axis oriented toward the line-of-sight. This model well explains the high concentration and the misalignement between stellar and dark matter components . We then calculate the systematic and statistical uncertainties in the relative normalization between the cylindric and spherical mass estimates for triaxial halos. These uncertainties prevent any attempt to couple 2D and 3D constraints without undertaking a complete tridimensional analysis. Such asphericity/projection effects should be a major concern for comparisons between lensing and X-rays/dynamics mass estimates.
Key words: cosmology: dark matter / galaxies: clusters: individual: MS2137 / galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD / gravitational lensing / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics / galaxies: clusters: general
© ESO, 2005