An estimate of the time variation of the abundance gradient from planetary nebulae*
II. Comparison with open clusters, cepheids and young objects
Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas (IAG), Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, 05508-900 São Paulo SP, Brazil e-mail: [maciel;leonardo;roberto]@astro.iag.usp.br
Accepted: 18 November 2004
The temporal behaviour of the radial abundance gradients has important consequences for models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. We present a comparison of the time variation of the abundance gradients in the Milky Way disk as determined from a sample of planetary nebulae, open clusters, cepheids and young objects, such as stars in OB associations and HII regions. We conclude that the [Fe/H] gradients as measured in open cluster stars strongly support the time flattening of the abundance gradient as determined from O/H and S/H measurements in planetary nebulae. This conclusion is also supported by the cepheid variables, for which very accurate gradients and ages can be determined, and also by some recent estimates for OB stars and HII regions. It is estimated that the average flattening rate for the last 8 Gyr is in the range dex kpc-1 Gyr-1.
Key words: planetary nebulae: general / ISM: abundances / Galaxy: abundances / open clusters and associations: general / Galaxy: disk
© ESO, 2005