Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, Bât. B5c, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2 Astronomy and Astrophysics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
3 Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Corresponding author: Y. Nazé, email@example.com
Accepted: 21 January 2004
Using the sensitive XMM-Newton observatory, we have observed the giant H ii region N 11 in the LMC for ~30 ks. We have detected several large areas of soft diffuse X-ray emission along with 37 point sources. One of the most interesting results is the possible association of a faint X-ray source with BSDL 188, a small extended object of uncertain nature. The OB associations in the field-of-view (LH9, LH10 and LH13) are all detected with XMM-Newton, but they appear very different from one another. The diffuse soft X-ray emission associated with LH9 peaks near HD 32228, a dense cluster of massive stars. The combined emission of all individual massive stars of LH9 and of the superbubble they have created is not sufficient to explain the high level of emission observed: hidden SNRs, colliding-wind binaries and the numerous pre-main sequence stars of the cluster are most likely the cause of this discrepancy. The superbubble may also be leaking some hot gas in the ISM since faint, soft emission can be observed to the south of the cluster. The X-ray emission from LH10 consists of three pointlike sources and a soft extended emission of low intensity. The two brightest point sources are clearly associated with the fastest expanding bubbles blown by hot stars in the SW part of the cluster. The total X-ray emission from LH10 is rather soft, although it presents a higher temperature than the other soft emissions of the field. The discrepancy between the combined emission of the stars and the observed luminosity is here less severe than for LH9 and could be explained in terms of hot gas filling the wind-blown bubbles. On the other hand, the case of LH13 is different: it does not harbour any extended emission and its X-ray emission could most probably be explained by the Sk 41 cluster alone. Finally, our XMM-Newton observation included simultaneous observations with the OM camera that provide us with unique UV photometry of more than 6000 sources and enable the discovery of the UV emission from the SNR N11L.
Key words: ISM: individual objects: LMC N11 / magellanic clouds / galaxies: star clusters / ultraviolet: stars / X-rays: general
Based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).
© ESO, 2004