Volume 390, Number 2, August I 2002
|Page(s)||707 - 715|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||12 July 2002|
Hemispheric Sunspot Numbers and : Catalogue and N-S asymmetry analysis*
Institut für Geophysik, Astrophysik und Meteorologie, Universität Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010 Graz, Austria
Corresponding author: M. Temmer, firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 6 May 2002
Sunspot drawings are provided on a regular basis at the Kanzelhöhe Solar Observatory, Austria, and the derived relative sunspot numbers are reported to the Sunspot Index Data Center in Brussels. From the daily sunspot drawings, we derived the northern, Rn, and southern, Rs, relative sunspot numbers for the time span 1975–2000. In order to accord with the International Sunspot Numbers Ri, the Rn and Rs have been normalized to the Ri, which ensures that the relation is fulfilled. For validation, the derived Rn and Rs are compared to the international northern and southern relative sunspot numbers, which are available from 1992. The regression analysis performed for the period 1992–2000 reveals good agreement with the International hemispheric Sunspot Numbers. The monthly mean and the smoothed monthly mean hemispheric Sunspot Numbers are compiled into a catalogue. Based on the derived hemispheric Sunspot Numbers, we study the significance of N-S asymmetries and the rotational behavior separately for both hemispheres. We obtain that ~60% of the monthly N-S asymmetries are significant at a 95% level, whereas the relative contributions of the northern and southern hemisphere are different for different cycles. From the analysis of power spectra and autocorrelation functions, we derive a rigid rotation with ~27 days for the northern hemisphere, which can be followed for up to 15 periods. Contrary to that, the southern hemisphere reveals a dominant period of ~28 days, whereas the autocorrelation is strongly attenuated after 3 periods. These findings suggest that the activity of the northern hemisphere is dominated by an active zone, whereas the southern activity is mainly dominated by individual long-lived sunspot groups.
Key words: catalogs / Sun: activity / Sun: rotation / Sun: sunspots
© ESO, 2002
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