Results of the inversion of three thermodynamic parameters. Three different inversions are presented, in each of which a single physical parameter is inverted: the temperature, T(z), (solid-purple line), the gas pressure, Pg(z), (dashed-red), and the density, ρ(z), (dash-dotted-blue). Left panels: simulated spectral lines inverted (𝕀syn(λ), in black) coming from the same penumbral pixel highlighted in Fig. 1 (red square) together with the results of the three inversions. Right panels: thermodynamic parameters (synthetic Xsyn(z) and inverted X′(z)), from top to bottom, T(z), Pg(z), and ρ(z), (the initialization for each inversion is shown in thin lines for each thermodynamical parameter). Line-of-sight velocity and magnetic field components are taken to be constant with height. For the sake of clarity, in each panel we only show the physical parameter inverted, as the other ones are taken as known. The colored shadows represent the uncertainties as derived by the code (see Sect. 2.3). Right panels include a horizontal line for each physical parameter (following the same color code) with ticks for, from left to right, the heights at which lgτ5 = 0, −1, −2, −3.
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