Time-latitude diagrams of the observed (left) and simulated (right) magnetic fields. Panel a: observed surface longitudinally averaged radial field based on KPNSO/VT and SOLIS data. Panel b: observed surface longitudinally averaged toroidal magnetic field based on WSO observations, and panel c is the same as panel b except saturated to bring out the weaker high-latitude fields. Panel d: surface radial field from the updated Babcock-Leighton model (Cameron & Schüssler 2017), panel e: subsurface toroidal flux density from the Babcock-Leighton model, and panel f shows a saturated version of panel e. The black lines in all the panels show the zero contours from the model.
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