a) Measured phase and amplitude noise of a representative MKID at 10 aW of absorbed power per pixel (cold and dark conditions, 2.7-K calibrator) and at 50 fW absorbed power (9-K calibrator). Note that the spectra are taken from the signal relative to the circle traced by the frequency sweep around the resonator; see Gao et al. (2008a) for details. b) Measured NEP using phase and amplitude readout at a post-detection frequency between 60 and 80 Hz at a black body temperature of 9 K. The NEP calculation is done using Eq. (4) with the calculated obtained optical efficiency ηopt,calc. The blue line is the background limited NEPph obtained using Eqs. (3) and (4) with ηopt,calc. c) Experimental optical efficiency relative to the calculated value, obtained from the difference between the measured phase NEP and the background limit, both shown in panel b). In both panels b) and c) the solid symbols represent the detectors that are fully illuminated by the calibration source, the open symbols represent the detectors that are not, or partly, illuminated.
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