Different cooling curves illustrating the differences between basic models (without diffusion and rotation) and models that include element diffusion and rotation. All models have a metallicity of Z = 0.001. The value of MWD/M⊙ is shown for each track, and the difference in masses can partly explain the different cooling rates. However, more important in this respect is the occurrence of hydrogen shell flashes (blue and green curves), which accelerates the cooling and creates a dichotomy in WD cooling ages (see text).
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