Adapted from Fig. 5 of Stepanov (2002). Flow chart of the energy internal conversion in C60 with the characteristic timescales and rates: τ1< ~ 20 ps is the time to reach the S1,2,3 states from the initially excited state Sn, by electronic to vibrational internal energy conversion; τ2 ≈ 1 ns reflects the intersystem crossing time; k3 ≈ 0.3−1 μs-1 is the slow decay rate through fluorescence directly to the ground state S0; τ4 ≈ 100 μs to 1 ms or shorter is the radiationless decay from the lowest triplet state to the ground state; kPF is the rate of Poincaré fluorescence from the triplet state discussed in Appendix G; and τ5, possibly >~100 s, is the very slow decay of vibrational excitation through infrared emission. Of course, as long as there is no emission of visible or infrared photons, the total energy, E(Sn), is conserved; when the excitation is transferred to the electronic state i, the energy difference E(Sn) − Ei appears as vibrational energy.
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