Comparison of the measured Lyα absorption signals with the simulation results. The upper panels show the in- and out-of-transit Lyα flux ratios. Computed transmission images are depicted at the bottom; the size of the atmospheres is given by the height of the Roche lobe. The central part of the Lyα line affected by geocoronal emission is omitted. For HD 209458 b we show the flux ratio from the analysis of Ben-Jaffel (2008), for GJ 436 the data from Ehrenreich et al. (2015), and for HD 189733 b of Lecavelier des Etangs et al. (2012). The horizontal dashed lines represent the optical transit depth; solid thick lines show the absorption from the atmosphere below the Roche lobe; the dashed thin lines depict the absorption from the complete simulated atmosphere including unbound hydrogen. For the system HD 209458 b, we also depict the absorption from the Roche lobe of the H-only simulation by the green dotted line.
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