Top panel: map of the initial distribution of active regions as used for the simulations in Sect. 3 for Q = 0.0. Middle panel: spectral signature (flux rms vs. wavelength) for three different configurations of active regions normalized to the same resulting rms in the Johnson V-band: ΔTspot = 310 K and (black line), K and a 50% increase in the area of the spots (red line), and K and a 50% decrease in the area of the spots (blue line). Bottom panel: same as the middle panel including facula regions with Q = 5.0 and ΔTfac = 30 K, where the red line corresponds to K and the blue line to K.
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