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Fig. 9

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Dependence and significance of the brightness peak localization. a) Marginal PPD (68%- and 95%-confidence intervals) of the brightness peak longitude, Δφ, and ecosω for the ΓSH,1 brightness model – the simplest non-uniform brightness model used in this study. This shows the correlation between the brightness model and the orbital eccentricity. This correlation emerges from enabling compensation of the anomalous occultation with a larger set of contributing factors, i.e., by including non-uniform brightness models. In particular, the uniform time offset is now mainly compensated by an non-uniformly-bright model, rather than by ecosω as in conventional analysis (see Fig. 3, Eq. (6) and Fig. 4c). b) Marginal PPDs (68%-confidence intervals) of the brightness peak localization for the ΓSH,1 and Γ2 brightness models. It shows that the brightness peak localization is model-dependent. For example, the longitudinal ΓSH,1 peak localization is constrained by the phase curve because of its large and constant extension; while the free extension of the Γ2 model relaxes this longitudinal constraint (see Sect. 5). Therefore, the light curve of an exoplanet does not constrain uniquely its brightness peak localization; furthermore, the brightness peak localization is not an adequate parameter to characterize complex exoplanet brightness distributions.

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