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Table 2

Dust yields per star required to explain dust in z > 5 QSOs.

Td Dust Yields (M Per Star)

Dust Producer (K) β IMF M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sym

AGB (2.5–8M) 50 1.3 Sal. Mdyn − Mgas 0.42 0.02 0.08 0.64 0.13 0.45 0.18 0.03 0.11
AGB (2.5–8M) 50 2.0 Sal. Mdyn 0.08 0.01 0.02 0.11 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.01 0.03  ⊥ 
AGB (2.5–8M) 80 2.0 Sal. Mdyn 0.031 0.003 0.009 0.048 0.012 0.039 0.015 0.003 0.011  ↑ 

SN (8–40M) 50 1.3 Sal. Mdyn − Mgas 1.79 0.11 0.34 2.76 0.55 1.93 0.76 0.12 0.48
SN (8–40M) 50 1.3 Top Mdyn − Mgas 0.76 0.05 0.15 1.18 0.23 0.82 0.32 0.05 0.21
SN (8–40M) 50 2.0 Sal. Mdyn 0.35 0.03 0.08 0.46 0.12 0.34 0.15 0.03 0.11  ⊥ 
SN (8–40M) 80 2.0 Sal. Mdyn 0.13 0.01 0.04 0.21 0.05 0.17 0.06 0.01 0.05  ↑ 
SN (8–40M) 80 2.0 Top Mdyn 0.057 0.005 0.016 0.088 0.023 0.072 0.028 0.005 0.020  ↑ 

Notes. The IMF is either Salpeter (1955) with α = 2.35 or top-heavy with α = 1.5. The M column indicates either that stellar mass was assumed to be the difference between the dynamical and gas masses (Mdyn − Mgas) or that the strict upper limit to the stellar mass equal to the dynamical mass was adopted (see Sect. 2). The numbered columns contain the required dust yields for all QSOs in the order given in Table 1. Only their numbers are given for brevity. The last column gives the symbol used in Fig. 1.

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