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Fig. 1

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Dust yields per AGB star (top) or per SN (bottom) required to explain dust in the z > 5 QSOs. For reasonable assumptions on the dust properties, AGB stars are not efficient enough and SNe would need to be unfeasibly efficient to form dust in these sources suggesting rapid grain grown in the ISM is likely to be responsible for the large dust masses. Circles: the best estimates of the required dust yields with error bars reflecting the uncertainty of β and M. Numbers indicate the QSOs as in Table 1. Arrows: strict and unlikely lower limits with very high Tdust and β shown where data allow it (Table 1). Gray symbols indicate that a top-heavy IMF was adopted. Dashed line and diagonal lines: the dust yields derived for Cassiopeia A, Kepler (~1M) and other SN remnants (~10-3–10-2M), respectively. Green area: theoretical dust yields for AGB stars (≲4 × 10-2M). Light blue and blue areas: theoretical SN dust yields without (≲1.32M) and with dust destruction implemented (≲0.1M), respectively.

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