A&A 434, 1005-1019 (2005)
Edge-on T Tauri starsI. Appenzeller1, C. Bertout2 and O. Stahl1
1 Landessternwarte, Königstuhl, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
2 Institut d'Astrophysique, 98bis Bd. Arago, 75014 Paris, France
(Received 30 March 2004 / Accepted 8 January 2005)
Using the UVES echelle spectrograph at the ESO VLT we obtained two-dimensional high-resolution () spectra of the edge-on disk objects HH30*, HK Tau B, and HV Tau C. For comparison purposes we also observed with the same equipment both the classical T Tauri star HL Tau and the active late-type star LDN 1551-9. The spectra of all three observed edge-on disks consist of a T Tauri emission and absorption line spectrum with superimposed jet emission lines. Analysis of the spectra confirmed that the disks are completely opaque at visible wavelengths and that light from the central objects reaches us only via scattering layers above and below the disk planes. The central objects of our targets were found to be normal T Tauri stars showing moderate but different amounts of veiling of their photospheric spectra, indicating different accretion rates or evolutionary stages. We suggest that all classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) show this observed morphology when viewed edge-on. Part of the jet emission from edge-on systems is directly visible to us in the forbidden lines as well as in H and He I, a finding which contradicts the present paradigm of a pure magnetospheric accretion origin for the formation of hydrogen and helium emission lines in moderately active CTTSs. From a comparison with those Taurus-Auriga CTTSs for which the inclination is reliably known, we conclude that the view angle of CTTS systems is one of the key parameters governing apparent H emission strength in the T Tauri class. We discuss the various possible formation regions for the Na I D lines and show that profiles similar to observed ones can be formed at the base of the disk wind.
Key words: stars: formation -- stars: pre-main sequence -- ISM: jets and outflows -- planetary systems: proto-planetary disks -- line: formation
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